jax.numpy.matmul

jax.numpy.matmul(a, b, *, precision=None)[source]

Matrix product of two arrays.

LAX-backend implementation of matmul(). In addition to the original NumPy arguments listed below, also supports precision for extra control over matrix-multiplication precision on supported devices. precision may be set to None, which means default precision for the backend, a lax.Precision enum value (Precision.DEFAULT, Precision.HIGH or Precision.HIGHEST) or a tuple of two lax.Precision enums indicating separate precision for each argument.

Original docstring below.

matmul(x1, x2, /, out=None, *, casting=’same_kind’, order=’K’, dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj])

Parameters

out (ndarray, optional) – A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that matches the signature (n,k),(k,m)->(n,m). If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned.

Returns

y – The matrix product of the inputs. This is a scalar only when both x1, x2 are 1-d vectors.

Return type

ndarray

Raises
  • ValueError – If the last dimension of a is not the same size as the second-to-last dimension of b.

  • If a scalar value is passed in.

See also

vdot()

Complex-conjugating dot product.

tensordot()

Sum products over arbitrary axes.

einsum()

Einstein summation convention.

dot()

alternative matrix product with different broadcasting rules.

Notes

The behavior depends on the arguments in the following way.

  • If both arguments are 2-D they are multiplied like conventional matrices.

  • If either argument is N-D, N > 2, it is treated as a stack of matrices residing in the last two indexes and broadcast accordingly.

  • If the first argument is 1-D, it is promoted to a matrix by prepending a 1 to its dimensions. After matrix multiplication the prepended 1 is removed.

  • If the second argument is 1-D, it is promoted to a matrix by appending a 1 to its dimensions. After matrix multiplication the appended 1 is removed.

matmul differs from dot in two important ways:

  • Multiplication by scalars is not allowed, use * instead.

  • Stacks of matrices are broadcast together as if the matrices were elements, respecting the signature (n,k),(k,m)->(n,m):

>>> a = np.ones([9, 5, 7, 4])
>>> c = np.ones([9, 5, 4, 3])
>>> np.dot(a, c).shape
(9, 5, 7, 9, 5, 3)
>>> np.matmul(a, c).shape
(9, 5, 7, 3)
>>> # n is 7, k is 4, m is 3

The matmul function implements the semantics of the @ operator introduced in Python 3.5 following PEP465.

Examples

For 2-D arrays it is the matrix product:

>>> a = np.array([[1, 0],
...               [0, 1]])
>>> b = np.array([[4, 1],
...               [2, 2]])
>>> np.matmul(a, b)
array([[4, 1],
       [2, 2]])

For 2-D mixed with 1-D, the result is the usual.

>>> a = np.array([[1, 0],
...               [0, 1]])
>>> b = np.array([1, 2])
>>> np.matmul(a, b)
array([1, 2])
>>> np.matmul(b, a)
array([1, 2])

Broadcasting is conventional for stacks of arrays

>>> a = np.arange(2 * 2 * 4).reshape((2, 2, 4))
>>> b = np.arange(2 * 2 * 4).reshape((2, 4, 2))
>>> np.matmul(a,b).shape
(2, 2, 2)
>>> np.matmul(a, b)[0, 1, 1]
98
>>> sum(a[0, 1, :] * b[0 , :, 1])
98

Vector, vector returns the scalar inner product, but neither argument is complex-conjugated:

>>> np.matmul([2j, 3j], [2j, 3j])
(-13+0j)

Scalar multiplication raises an error.

>>> np.matmul([1,2], 3)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: matmul: Input operand 1 does not have enough dimensions ...

New in version 1.10.0.