Source code for jax._src.lax.lax

# Copyright 2018 The JAX Authors.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

from __future__ import annotations

import builtins
from import Sequence
import enum
import functools
from functools import partial
import itertools
import math
import operator
from typing import Any, Callable, ClassVar, TypeVar, Union, cast as type_cast, overload, TYPE_CHECKING
import warnings

import numpy as np

import jax
from jax import tree_util
from jax.sharding import Sharding
from jax.tree_util import tree_map

from jax._src import ad_util
from jax._src import api
from jax._src import api_util
from jax._src import array
from jax._src import config
from jax._src import core
from jax._src import dispatch
from jax._src import dtypes
from jax._src import effects
from jax._src import linear_util as lu
from jax._src import pretty_printer as pp
from jax._src import source_info_util
from jax._src import util
from jax._src.abstract_arrays import array_types
from jax._src.core import (Primitive, UnshapedArray, ShapedArray, ConcreteArray,
                           raise_to_shaped, abstract_token, canonicalize_shape)
from jax._src.interpreters import ad
from jax._src.interpreters import batching
from jax._src.interpreters import mlir
from jax._src.interpreters import partial_eval as pe
from jax._src.interpreters import pxla
from jax._src.interpreters import xla
from jax._src.interpreters.batching import RaggedAxis
from jax._src.lax import slicing
from jax._src.lax.utils import (
  _input_dtype, dtype_to_string, standard_abstract_eval,
  standard_multi_result_abstract_eval, standard_named_shape_rule,
from jax._src import xla_bridge
from jax._src.lib import xla_client
from jax._src.lib.mlir import ir
from jax._src.lib.mlir.dialects import chlo
from jax._src.lib.mlir.dialects import hlo
from jax._src.sharding_impls import PmapSharding
from jax._src.typing import Array, ArrayLike, DuckTypedArray, DTypeLike, Shape
from jax._src.util import (cache, safe_zip, safe_map, canonicalize_axis,
                           split_list, NumpyComplexWarning)

xb = xla_bridge
xc = xla_client
xops = xla_client.ops
xe = xla_client._xla

_max = builtins.max
_min = builtins.min
_reduce = functools.reduce

T = TypeVar("T")

map, unsafe_map = safe_map, map
zip, unsafe_zip = safe_zip, zip

def _clip_int_to_valid_range(val: int, dtype) -> int:
  info = np.iinfo(dtype)
  return builtins.max(info.min, builtins.min(int(val), info.max))

def _validate_shapes(shapes: Sequence[Shape]):
  def _check_static_shape(shape: Shape):
    checked = canonicalize_shape(shape)
    if not all(idx >= 0 for idx in checked):
      msg = f"Only non-negative indices are allowed when broadcasting" \
            f" static shapes, but got shape {shape!r}."
      raise TypeError(msg)

  assert shapes
  if config.dynamic_shapes.value:
    # pass dynamic shapes through unchecked
    map(_check_static_shape, shapes)

def _try_broadcast_shapes(
    shapes: Sequence[tuple[int, ...]]) -> tuple[int, ...] | None:
  if len(shapes) == 1: return shapes[0]
  ranks = {len(shape) for shape in shapes}
  if len(ranks) > 1: return None  # must have consistent rank
  rank = ranks.pop()
  if not rank: return ()  # scalar case
  result_shape = []
  for ds in unsafe_zip(*shapes):
    if all(core.same_referent(d, ds[0]) for d in ds[1:]):
      # if all axes are identical objects, the resulting size is the object
      # if all dims are equal (or 1), the result is the non-1 size (or 1)
      non_1s = [d for d in ds if not core.definitely_equal(d, 1)]
      if not non_1s:
      elif all(core.definitely_equal(non_1s[0], d) for d in non_1s[1:]):
        return None
  return tuple(result_shape)

def asarray(x: ArrayLike) -> Array:
  """Lightweight conversion of ArrayLike input to Array output."""
  if isinstance(x, Array):
    return x
  if isinstance(x, (np.ndarray, np.generic, bool, int, float, builtins.complex)):
    return _convert_element_type(x, weak_type=dtypes.is_weakly_typed(x))
    raise TypeError(f"asarray: expected ArrayLike, got {x} of type {type(x)}.")

def broadcast_shapes(*shapes: tuple[int, ...]) -> tuple[int, ...]: ...

def broadcast_shapes(*shapes: tuple[int | core.Tracer, ...]
                     ) -> tuple[int | core.Tracer, ...]: ...

[docs] def broadcast_shapes(*shapes): """Returns the shape that results from NumPy broadcasting of `shapes`.""" # NOTE: We have both cached and uncached versions to handle Tracers in shapes. try: return _broadcast_shapes_cached(*shapes) except: return _broadcast_shapes_uncached(*shapes)
@cache() def _broadcast_shapes_cached(*shapes: tuple[int, ...]) -> tuple[int, ...]: return _broadcast_shapes_uncached(*shapes) def _broadcast_shapes_uncached(*shapes): _validate_shapes(shapes) fst, *rst = shapes if not rst: return fst # First check if we need only rank promotion (and not singleton-broadcasting). try: return _reduce(_broadcast_ranks, rst, fst) except ValueError: pass # Next try singleton-broadcasting, padding out ranks using singletons. ndim = _max(len(shape) for shape in shapes) shape_list = [(1,) * (ndim - len(shape)) + shape for shape in shapes] result_shape = _try_broadcast_shapes(shape_list) if result_shape is None: raise ValueError(f"Incompatible shapes for broadcasting: shapes={list(shapes)}") return result_shape def _broadcast_ranks(s1, s2): if len(s1) > len(s2): s1, s2 = s2, s1 assert len(s1) <= len(s2) s1_ = s2[len(s2) - len(s1):] if core.definitely_equal_shape(s1_, s1): return s2 else: raise ValueError def _identity(x): return x def _extract_tracers_dyn_shape( shape: Sequence[int | core.Tracer] ) -> tuple[list[core.Tracer], list[int | None]]: # Given a sequence representing a shape, pull out Tracers, replacing with None if config.dynamic_shapes.value: # We must gate this behavior under a flag because otherwise the errors # raised are different (and have worse source provenance information). dyn_shape = [d for d in shape if isinstance(d, core.Tracer)] static_shape = [None if isinstance(d, core.Tracer) else d for d in shape] return dyn_shape, static_shape else: return [], list(shape) # type: ignore def _merge_dyn_shape( static_shape: Sequence[int | None], dyn_shape: Sequence[Any], ) -> tuple[int | mlir.Value | core.Tracer, ...]: # Replace Nones in static_shape with elements of dyn_shape, in order dyn_shape_it = iter(dyn_shape) shape = tuple(next(dyn_shape_it) if d is None else d for d in static_shape) assert next(dyn_shape_it, None) is None return shape def _dyn_shape_staging_rule(trace, prim, out_aval, *args, **params): source_info = source_info_util.current() out_tracer = pe.DynamicJaxprTracer(trace, out_aval, source_info) eqn = pe.new_jaxpr_eqn([trace.getvar(x) for x in args], [trace.makevar(out_tracer)], prim, params, core.no_effects, source_info) trace.frame.add_eqn(eqn) return out_tracer ### traceables
[docs] def neg(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise negation: :math:`-x`.""" return neg_p.bind(x)
[docs] def sign(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise sign. For floating-point inputs, returns :math:`\mathrm{sign}(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x < 0\\ -0 & x = -0\\ \mathit{NaN} & x = \mathit{NaN}\\ +0 & x = +0\\ 1 & x > 0 \end{cases}` For signed integer inputs, returns :math:`\mathrm{sign}(x) = \begin{cases} -1 & x < 0\\ 0 & x = 0\\ 1 & x > 0 \end{cases}` For complex inputs, returns the complex phase, i.e. :math:`\mathrm{sign}(x) = \frac{x}{|x|}`. """ return sign_p.bind(x)
[docs] def nextafter(x1: ArrayLike, x2: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Returns the next representable value after `x1` in the direction of `x2`. Note that in some environments flush-denormal-to-zero semantics is used. This means that, around zero, this function returns strictly non-zero values which appear as zero in any operations. Consider this example:: >>> jnp.nextafter(0, 1) # denormal numbers are representable Array(1.e-45, dtype=float32, weak_type=True) >>> jnp.nextafter(0, 1) * 1 # but are flushed to zero Array(0., dtype=float32, weak_type=True) For the smallest usable (i.e. normal) float, use ``tiny`` of ``jnp.finfo``. """ return nextafter_p.bind(x1, x2)
[docs] def floor(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise floor: :math:`\left\lfloor x \right\rfloor`.""" return floor_p.bind(x)
[docs] def ceil(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise ceiling: :math:`\left\lceil x \right\rceil`.""" return ceil_p.bind(x)
[docs] class RoundingMethod(enum.IntEnum): AWAY_FROM_ZERO = 0 TO_NEAREST_EVEN = 1
[docs] def round(x: ArrayLike, rounding_method: RoundingMethod = RoundingMethod.AWAY_FROM_ZERO ) -> Array: r"""Elementwise round. Rounds values to the nearest integer. Args: x: an array or scalar value to round. rounding_method: the method to use when rounding halfway values (e.g., `0.5`). See ``lax.RoundingMethod`` for the list of possible values. Returns: An array containing the elementwise rounding of x. """ rounding_method = RoundingMethod(rounding_method) return round_p.bind(x, rounding_method=rounding_method)
[docs] def is_finite(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise :math:`\mathrm{isfinite}`. For each element x returns `True` if and only if x is not :math:`\pm\infty` or :math:`\mathit{NaN}`. """ return is_finite_p.bind(x)
[docs] def exp(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise exponential: :math:`e^x`.""" return exp_p.bind(x)
def exp2(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise base-2 exponential: :math:`2^x`.""" return exp2_p.bind(x)
[docs] def expm1(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise :math:`e^{x} - 1`.""" return expm1_p.bind(x)
[docs] def log(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise natural logarithm: :math:`\mathrm{log}(x)`.""" return log_p.bind(x)
[docs] def log1p(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise :math:`\mathrm{log}(1 + x)`.""" return log1p_p.bind(x)
[docs] def tanh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise hyperbolic tangent: :math:`\mathrm{tanh}(x)`.""" return tanh_p.bind(x)
[docs] def logistic(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise logistic (sigmoid) function: :math:`\frac{1}{1 + e^{-x}}`.""" return logistic_p.bind(x)
[docs] def sin(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise sine: :math:`\mathrm{sin}(x)`.""" return sin_p.bind(x)
[docs] def cos(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise cosine: :math:`\mathrm{cos}(x)`.""" return cos_p.bind(x)
[docs] def atan2(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise arc tangent of two variables: :math:`\mathrm{atan}({x \over y})`.""" return atan2_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def real(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise extract real part: :math:`\mathrm{Re}(x)`. Returns the real part of a complex number. """ return real_p.bind(x)
[docs] def imag(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise extract imaginary part: :math:`\mathrm{Im}(x)`. Returns the imaginary part of a complex number. """ return imag_p.bind(x)
[docs] def complex(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise make complex number: :math:`x + jy`. Builds a complex number from real and imaginary parts. """ return complex_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def conj(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise complex conjugate function: :math:`\overline{x}`.""" # TODO(mattjj): remove input_dtype, not needed anymore return conj_p.bind(x, input_dtype=_dtype(x))
[docs] def abs(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise absolute value: :math:`|x|`.""" return abs_p.bind(x)
[docs] def pow(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise power: :math:`x^y`.""" return pow_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def integer_pow(x: ArrayLike, y: int) -> Array: r"""Elementwise power: :math:`x^y`, where :math:`y` is a fixed integer.""" return integer_pow_p.bind(x, y=y)
[docs] def sqrt(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise square root: :math:`\sqrt{x}`.""" return sqrt_p.bind(x)
[docs] def rsqrt(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise reciprocal square root: :math:`1 \over \sqrt{x}`.""" return rsqrt_p.bind(x)
[docs] def cbrt(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise cube root: :math:`\sqrt[3]{x}`.""" return cbrt_p.bind(x)
[docs] def bitwise_not(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise NOT: :math:`\neg x`.""" return not_p.bind(x)
[docs] def bitwise_and(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise AND: :math:`x \wedge y`.""" return and_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def bitwise_or(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise OR: :math:`x \vee y`.""" return or_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def bitwise_xor(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise exclusive OR: :math:`x \oplus y`.""" return xor_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def population_count(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise popcount, count the number of set bits in each element.""" return population_count_p.bind(x)
[docs] def clz(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise count-leading-zeros.""" return clz_p.bind(x)
[docs] def add(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise addition: :math:`x + y`.""" return add_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def sub(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise subtraction: :math:`x - y`.""" return sub_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def mul(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise multiplication: :math:`x \times y`.""" return mul_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def div(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise division: :math:`x \over y`. Integer division overflow (division by zero or signed division of INT_SMIN with -1) produces an implementation defined value. """ return div_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def rem(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise remainder: :math:`x \bmod y`. The sign of the result is taken from the dividend, and the absolute value of the result is always less than the divisor's absolute value. Integer division overflow (remainder by zero or remainder of INT_SMIN with -1) produces an implementation defined value. """ return rem_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def max(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise maximum: :math:`\mathrm{max}(x, y)` For complex numbers, uses a lexicographic comparison on the `(real, imaginary)` pairs.""" return max_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def min(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise minimum: :math:`\mathrm{min}(x, y)` For complex numbers, uses a lexicographic comparison on the `(real, imaginary)` pairs.""" return min_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def shift_left(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise left shift: :math:`x \ll y`.""" return shift_left_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def shift_right_arithmetic(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise arithmetic right shift: :math:`x \gg y`.""" return shift_right_arithmetic_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def shift_right_logical(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise logical right shift: :math:`x \gg y`.""" return shift_right_logical_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def eq(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise equals: :math:`x = y`.""" return eq_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def ne(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise not-equals: :math:`x \neq y`.""" return ne_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def ge(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise greater-than-or-equals: :math:`x \geq y`.""" return ge_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def gt(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise greater-than: :math:`x > y`.""" return gt_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def le(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise less-than-or-equals: :math:`x \leq y`.""" return le_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def lt(x: ArrayLike, y: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise less-than: :math:`x < y`.""" return lt_p.bind(x, y)
[docs] def convert_element_type(operand: ArrayLike, new_dtype: DTypeLike) -> Array: """Elementwise cast. Wraps XLA's `ConvertElementType <>`_ operator, which performs an elementwise conversion from one type to another. Similar to a C++ `static_cast`. Args: operand: an array or scalar value to be cast new_dtype: a NumPy dtype representing the target type. Returns: An array with the same shape as `operand`, cast elementwise to `new_dtype`. """ return _convert_element_type(operand, new_dtype, weak_type=False)
def _convert_element_type(operand: ArrayLike, new_dtype: DTypeLike | None = None, weak_type: bool = False): if hasattr(operand, '__jax_array__'): operand = operand.__jax_array__() # type: ignore if (dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, dtypes.extended) or dtypes.issubdtype(getattr(operand, 'dtype', None), dtypes.extended)): return convert_element_type_p.bind(operand, new_dtype=new_dtype, weak_type=bool(weak_type)) # Don't canonicalize old_dtype because x64 context might cause # un-canonicalized operands to be passed in. old_dtype = dtypes.dtype(operand, canonicalize=False) old_weak_type = dtypes.is_weakly_typed(operand) if new_dtype is None: new_dtype = old_dtype else: new_dtype = np.dtype(new_dtype) new_dtype = dtypes.dtype(new_dtype, canonicalize=True) if (dtypes.issubdtype(old_dtype, np.complexfloating) and not dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, np.complexfloating)): msg = "Casting complex values to real discards the imaginary part" warnings.warn(msg, NumpyComplexWarning, stacklevel=2) # Python has big integers, but convert_element_type(2 ** 100, np.float32) need # not be an error since the target dtype fits the value. Handle this case by # converting to a NumPy array before calling bind. Without this step, we'd # first canonicalize the input to a value of dtype int32 or int64, leading to # an overflow error. if type(operand) is int: operand = np.asarray(operand).astype(new_dtype) old_weak_type = False if ((old_dtype, old_weak_type) == (new_dtype, weak_type) and isinstance(operand, Array) and not (isinstance(operand, core.Tracer) and isinstance(core.get_aval(operand), core.ConcreteArray))): return type_cast(Array, operand) else: return convert_element_type_p.bind(operand, new_dtype=new_dtype, weak_type=bool(weak_type))
[docs] def bitcast_convert_type(operand: ArrayLike, new_dtype: DTypeLike) -> Array: """Elementwise bitcast. Wraps XLA's `BitcastConvertType <>`_ operator, which performs a bit cast from one type to another. The output shape depends on the size of the input and output dtypes with the following logic:: if new_dtype.itemsize == operand.dtype.itemsize: output_shape = operand.shape if new_dtype.itemsize < operand.dtype.itemsize: output_shape = (*operand.shape, operand.dtype.itemsize // new_dtype.itemsize) if new_dtype.itemsize > operand.dtype.itemsize: assert operand.shape[-1] * operand.dtype.itemsize == new_dtype.itemsize output_shape = operand.shape[:-1] Args: operand: an array or scalar value to be cast new_dtype: the new type. Should be a NumPy type. Returns: An array of shape `output_shape` (see above) and type `new_dtype`, constructed from the same bits as operand. """ new_dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(new_dtype) return bitcast_convert_type_p.bind(operand, new_dtype=new_dtype)
[docs] def clamp(min: ArrayLike, x: ArrayLike, max: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise clamp. Returns :math:`\mathrm{clamp}(x) = \begin{cases} \mathit{min} & \text{if } x < \mathit{min},\\ \mathit{max} & \text{if } x > \mathit{max},\\ x & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}`. """ return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max)
[docs] def concatenate(operands: Array | Sequence[ArrayLike], dimension: int) -> Array: """Concatenates a sequence of arrays along `dimension`. Wraps XLA's `Concatenate <>`_ operator. Args: operands: a sequence of arrays to concatenate. The arrays must have equal shapes, except in the `dimension` axis. dimension: the dimension along which to concatenate the arrays. Returns: An array containing the concatenation. """ if len(operands) == 0: raise ValueError("concatenate requires a non-empty sequences of arrays") if len(operands) == 1: op, = operands if isinstance(op, Array): return type_cast(Array, op) return concatenate_p.bind(*operands, dimension=dimension)
_precision_strings: dict[Any, Precision] = {} # TODO(b/333851820): pytype does not properly handle _missing_ in enums. # We work around that by defining `Precision` as a normal class. if TYPE_CHECKING: class Precision: DEFAULT: ClassVar[Precision] HIGH: ClassVar[Precision] HIGHEST: ClassVar[Precision] def __new__(cls, value: Precision | int | str | None) -> Precision: raise NotImplementedError @property def name(self) -> str: raise NotImplementedError @property def value(self) -> int: raise NotImplementedError else:
[docs] class Precision(enum.Enum): """Precision enum for lax functions The `precision` argument to JAX functions generally controls the tradeoff between speed and accuracy for array computations on accelerator backends, (i.e. TPU and GPU). Members are: DEFAULT: Fastest mode, but least accurate. Performs computations in bfloat16. Aliases: ``'default'``, ``'fastest'``, ``'bfloat16'``. HIGH: Slower but more accurate. Performs float32 computations in 3 bfloat16 passes, or using tensorfloat32 where available. Aliases: ``'high'``, ``'bfloat16_3x'``, ``'tensorfloat32'``. HIGHEST: Slowest but most accurate. Performs computations in float32 or float64 as applicable. Aliases: ``'highest'``, ``'float32'``. """ DEFAULT = 0 HIGH = 1 HIGHEST = 2 @classmethod def _missing_(cls, value: object) -> Precision | None: return _precision_strings.get(value) def __repr__(self) -> str: return f'{self.__class__.__name__}.{}' def __str__(self) -> str: return
_precision_strings['highest'] = Precision.HIGHEST _precision_strings['float32'] = Precision.HIGHEST _precision_strings['high'] = Precision.HIGH _precision_strings['bfloat16_3x'] = Precision.HIGH _precision_strings['tensorfloat32'] = Precision.HIGH _precision_strings['default'] = Precision.DEFAULT _precision_strings['bfloat16'] = Precision.DEFAULT _precision_strings['fastest'] = Precision.DEFAULT _precision_strings[None] = Precision.DEFAULT PrecisionLike = Union[ str, Precision, tuple[str, str], tuple[Precision, Precision], None, ]
[docs] def dot(lhs: Array, rhs: Array, precision: PrecisionLike = None, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None = None) -> Array: """Vector/vector, matrix/vector, and matrix/matrix multiplication. Wraps XLA's `Dot <>`_ operator. For more general contraction, see the `dot_general` operator. Args: lhs: an array of dimension 1 or 2. rhs: an array of dimension 1 or 2. precision: Optional. Either ``None``, which means the default precision for the backend, a :class:`~jax.lax.Precision` enum value (``Precision.DEFAULT``, ``Precision.HIGH`` or ``Precision.HIGHEST``) or a tuple of two :class:`~jax.lax.Precision` enums indicating precision of ``lhs``` and ``rhs``. preferred_element_type: Optional. Either ``None``, which means the default accumulation type for the input types, or a datatype, indicating to accumulate results to and return a result with that datatype. Returns: An array containing the product. """ if 1 <= lhs.ndim <= 2 and 1 <= rhs.ndim <= 2 and core.definitely_equal(lhs.shape[-1], rhs.shape[0]): return dot_general(lhs, rhs, (((lhs.ndim - 1,), (0,)), ((), ())), precision=precision, preferred_element_type=preferred_element_type) else: raise TypeError("Incompatible shapes for dot: got {} and {}.".format( lhs.shape, rhs.shape))
DotDimensionNumbers = tuple[tuple[Sequence[int], Sequence[int]], tuple[Sequence[int], Sequence[int]]]
[docs] def dot_general(lhs: ArrayLike, rhs: ArrayLike, dimension_numbers: DotDimensionNumbers, precision: PrecisionLike = None, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None = None) -> Array: """General dot product/contraction operator. Wraps XLA's `DotGeneral <>`_ operator. The semantics of ``dot_general`` are complicated, but most users should not have to use it directly. Instead, you can use higher-level functions like :func:``, :func:`jax.numpy.matmul`, :func:`jax.numpy.tensordot`, :func:`jax.numpy.einsum`, and others which will construct appropriate calls to ``dot_general`` under the hood. If you really want to understand ``dot_general`` itself, we recommend reading XLA's `DotGeneral <>`_ operator documentation. Args: lhs: an array rhs: an array dimension_numbers: a tuple of tuples of sequences of ints of the form ``((lhs_contracting_dims, rhs_contracting_dims), (lhs_batch_dims, rhs_batch_dims))`` precision: Optional. Either ``None``, which means the default precision for the backend, a :class:`~jax.lax.Precision` enum value (``Precision.DEFAULT``, ``Precision.HIGH`` or ``Precision.HIGHEST``) or a tuple of two :class:`~jax.lax.Precision` enums indicating precision of ``lhs``` and ``rhs``. preferred_element_type: Optional. Either ``None``, which means the default accumulation type for the input types, or a datatype, indicating to accumulate results to and return a result with that datatype. Returns: An array whose first dimensions are the (shared) batch dimensions, followed by the ``lhs`` non-contracting/non-batch dimensions, and finally the ``rhs`` non-contracting/non-batch dimensions. """ (lhs_contract, rhs_contract), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers cdims = (api_util._ensure_index_tuple(lhs_contract), api_util._ensure_index_tuple(rhs_contract)) bdims = (api_util._ensure_index_tuple(lhs_batch), api_util._ensure_index_tuple(rhs_batch)) preferred_element_type = ( None if preferred_element_type is None else dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(np.dtype(preferred_element_type))) return dot_general_p.bind(lhs, rhs, dimension_numbers=(cdims, bdims), precision=canonicalize_precision(precision), preferred_element_type=preferred_element_type)
[docs] def broadcast(operand: ArrayLike, sizes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """Broadcasts an array, adding new leading dimensions Args: operand: an array sizes: a sequence of integers, giving the sizes of new leading dimensions to add to the front of the array. Returns: An array containing the result. See Also: jax.lax.broadcast_in_dim : add new dimensions at any location in the array shape. """ dims = tuple(range(len(sizes), len(sizes) + np.ndim(operand))) return broadcast_in_dim(operand, tuple(sizes) + np.shape(operand), dims)
[docs] def broadcast_in_dim(operand: ArrayLike, shape: Shape, broadcast_dimensions: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `BroadcastInDim <>`_ operator. Args: operand: an array shape: the shape of the target array broadcast_dimensions: to which dimension in the target shape each dimension of the operand shape corresponds to. That is, dimension i of the operand becomes dimension broadcast_dimensions[i] of the result. Returns: An array containing the result. See Also: jax.lax.broadcast : simpler interface to add new leading dimensions. """ if np.ndim(operand) == len(shape) and not len(broadcast_dimensions) and isinstance(operand, Array): return type_cast(Array, operand) if config.dynamic_shapes.value: # We must gate this behavior under a flag because otherwise the errors # raised are different (and have worse source provenance information). dyn_shape, static_shape = _extract_tracers_dyn_shape(shape) else: dyn_shape, static_shape = [], shape # type: ignore return broadcast_in_dim_p.bind( operand, *dyn_shape, shape=tuple(static_shape), broadcast_dimensions=tuple(broadcast_dimensions))
[docs] def broadcast_to_rank(x: Array, rank: int) -> Array: """Adds leading dimensions of ``1`` to give ``x`` rank ``rank``.""" return broadcast(x, (1,) * (rank - x.ndim))
[docs] def reshape(operand: ArrayLike, new_sizes: Shape, dimensions: Sequence[int] | None = None) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `Reshape <>`_ operator. For inserting/removing dimensions of size 1, prefer using ``lax.squeeze`` / ``lax.expand_dims``. These preserve information about axis identity that may be useful for advanced transformation rules. Args: operand: array to be reshaped. new_sizes: sequence of integers specifying the resulting shape. The size of the final array must match the size of the input. dimensions: optional sequence of integers specifying the permutation order of the input shape. If specified, the length must match ``operand.shape``. Returns: out: reshaped array. Examples: Simple reshaping from one to two dimensions: >>> x = jnp.arange(6) >>> y = reshape(x, (2, 3)) >>> y Array([[0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5]], dtype=int32) Reshaping back to one dimension: >>> reshape(y, (6,)) Array([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5], dtype=int32) Reshaping to one dimension with permutation of dimensions: >>> reshape(y, (6,), (1, 0)) Array([0, 3, 1, 4, 2, 5], dtype=int32) """ new_sizes = canonicalize_shape(new_sizes) # TODO new_sizes = tuple(new_sizes) same_shape = core.definitely_equal_shape(np.shape(operand), new_sizes) if dimensions is None: same_dims = True dims = None else: dims = api_util._ensure_index_tuple(dimensions) same_dims = tuple(dims) == tuple(range(np.ndim(operand))) if np.shape(operand) and same_shape and same_dims and isinstance(operand, Array): return type_cast(Array, operand) else: dyn_shape, static_new_sizes = _extract_tracers_dyn_shape(new_sizes) return reshape_p.bind( operand, *dyn_shape, new_sizes=tuple(static_new_sizes), dimensions=None if dims is None or same_dims else dims)
[docs] def pad(operand: ArrayLike, padding_value: ArrayLike, padding_config: Sequence[tuple[int, int, int]]) -> Array: """Applies low, high, and/or interior padding to an array. Wraps XLA's `Pad <>`_ operator. Args: operand: an array to be padded. padding_value: the value to be inserted as padding. Must have the same dtype as ``operand``. padding_config: a sequence of ``(low, high, interior)`` tuples of integers, giving the amount of low, high, and interior (dilation) padding to insert in each dimension. Returns: The ``operand`` array with padding value ``padding_value`` inserted in each dimension according to the ``padding_config``. """ return pad_p.bind(operand, padding_value, padding_config=tuple(padding_config))
[docs] def rev(operand: ArrayLike, dimensions: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `Rev <>`_ operator. """ return rev_p.bind(operand, dimensions=tuple(dimensions))
[docs] def select(pred: ArrayLike, on_true: ArrayLike, on_false: ArrayLike) -> Array: """Selects between two branches based on a boolean predicate. Wraps XLA's `Select <>`_ operator. In general :func:`` leads to evaluation of both branches, although the compiler may elide computations if possible. For a similar function that usually evaluates only a single branch, see :func:`~jax.lax.cond`. Args: pred: boolean array on_true: array containing entries to return where ``pred`` is True. Must have the same shape as ``pred``, and the same shape and dtype as ``on_false``. on_false: array containing entries to return where ``pred`` is False. Must have the same shape as ``pred``, and the same shape and dtype as ``on_true``. Returns: result: array with same shape and dtype as ``on_true`` and ``on_false``. """ # Caution! The select_n_p primitive has the *opposite* order of arguments to # select(). This is because it implements `select_n`. return select_n_p.bind(pred, on_false, on_true)
[docs] def select_n(which: ArrayLike, *cases: ArrayLike) -> Array: """Selects array values from multiple cases. Generalizes XLA's `Select <>`_ operator. Unlike XLA's version, the operator is variadic and can select from many cases using an integer `pred`. Args: which: determines which case should be returned. Must be an array containing either a boolean or integer values. May either be a scalar or have shape matching ``cases``. For each array element, the value of ``which`` determines which of ``cases`` is taken. ``which`` must be in the range ``[0 .. len(cases))``; for values outside that range the behavior is implementation-defined. *cases: a non-empty list of array cases. All must have equal dtypes and equal shapes. Returns: An array with shape and dtype equal to the cases, whose values are chosen according to ``which``. """ if len(cases) == 0: raise ValueError("select_n() must have at least one case") return select_n_p.bind(which, *cases)
[docs] def transpose(operand: ArrayLike, permutation: Sequence[int] | np.ndarray) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `Transpose <>`_ operator. """ permutation = tuple(operator.index(d) for d in permutation) if permutation == tuple(range(np.ndim(operand))) and isinstance(operand, Array): return type_cast(Array, operand) else: return transpose_p.bind(operand, permutation=permutation)
[docs] def argmin(operand: ArrayLike, axis: int, index_dtype: DTypeLike) -> Array: """Computes the index of the minimum element along ``axis``.""" return argmin_p.bind(operand, axes=(axis,), index_dtype=dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(index_dtype))
[docs] def argmax(operand: ArrayLike, axis: int, index_dtype: DTypeLike) -> Array: """Computes the index of the maximum element along ``axis``.""" return argmax_p.bind(operand, axes=(axis,), index_dtype=dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(index_dtype))
[docs] def reduce(operands: Any, init_values: Any, computation: Callable[[Any, Any], Any], dimensions: Sequence[int]) -> Any: """Wraps XLA's `Reduce <>`_ operator. ``init_values`` and ``computation`` together must form a `monoid <>`_ for correctness. That is ``init_values`` must be an identity of ``computation``, and ``computation`` must be associative. XLA may exploit both of these properties during code generation; if either is violated the result is undefined. """ flat_operands, operand_tree = tree_util.tree_flatten(operands) flat_init_values, init_value_tree = tree_util.tree_flatten(init_values) if operand_tree != init_value_tree: raise ValueError('Operands must have the same tree structure as init_values:' f' {operand_tree} vs. {init_value_tree}') if len(flat_operands) != len(flat_init_values): raise ValueError('Must have same total number of operands as init_values: ' f' {len(flat_operands)} vs. {len(flat_init_values)}') monoid_reducer = _get_monoid_reducer(computation, flat_init_values) if monoid_reducer: # monoid reducers bypass the weak_type_rule, so we set it explicitly. weak_type = dtypes.is_weakly_typed(*flat_operands) and dtypes.is_weakly_typed(*flat_init_values) return _convert_element_type(monoid_reducer(*flat_operands, dimensions), weak_type=weak_type) else: flat_init_avals = safe_map(_abstractify, flat_init_values) closed_jaxpr, out_tree = _variadic_reduction_jaxpr( computation, tuple(flat_init_avals), init_value_tree) out = reduce_p.bind(*flat_operands, *flat_init_values, computation=computation, jaxpr=closed_jaxpr, dimensions=tuple(dimensions)) return tree_util.tree_unflatten(out_tree, out)
@cache() def _reduction_jaxpr(computation, aval): @lu.wrap_init def comp(x, y): result = computation(x, y) if not (isinstance(result, core.Tracer) or core.valid_jaxtype(result)): raise ValueError( f"Invalid return type from reduction function: {type(result)}\n" f"Reduction functions should only return an array.\n" f"Full return value: {result}") return (result,) jaxpr, _, consts, () = pe.trace_to_jaxpr_dynamic(comp, (aval, aval)) if any(isinstance(c, core.Tracer) for c in consts): raise NotImplementedError( "Reduction computations can't close over Tracers. Please open an issue " "at") return jaxpr, tuple(consts) @cache() def _variadic_reduction_jaxpr(computation, flat_avals, aval_tree): avals = tree_util.tree_unflatten(aval_tree, flat_avals) flat_in_avals, in_tree = tree_util.tree_flatten((avals, avals)) comp = lu.wrap_init(computation) flat_comp, out_tree = api_util.flatten_fun_nokwargs(comp, in_tree) jaxpr, _, consts, () = pe.trace_to_jaxpr_dynamic(flat_comp, tuple(flat_in_avals)) if any(isinstance(c, core.Tracer) for c in consts): raise NotImplementedError( "Reduction computations can't close over Tracers. Please open an issue " "at") return core.ClosedJaxpr(jaxpr, consts), out_tree() def _get_monoid_reducer(monoid_op: Callable, xs: Sequence[Array]) -> Callable | None: if len(xs) != 1: return None x, = xs aval = core.get_aval(x) dtype = _dtype(x) if (type(aval) is ConcreteArray) and aval.shape == (): # allow bitwise reductions for boolean and integer types _is_intlike = dtype == np.bool_ or dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.integer) if monoid_op is add: return _reduce_sum if np.equal(aval.val, 0) else None elif monoid_op is mul: return _reduce_prod if np.equal(aval.val, 1) else None elif monoid_op is bitwise_or and _is_intlike: return _reduce_or if np.equal(aval.val, _get_bitwise_or_identity(dtype)) else None elif monoid_op is bitwise_and and _is_intlike: return _reduce_and if np.equal(aval.val, _get_bitwise_and_identity(dtype)) else None elif monoid_op is bitwise_xor and _is_intlike: return _reduce_xor if np.equal(aval.val, _get_bitwise_or_identity(dtype)) else None elif monoid_op is max: return _reduce_max if np.equal(aval.val, _get_max_identity(dtype)) else None elif monoid_op is min: return _reduce_min if np.equal(aval.val, _get_min_identity(dtype)) else None return None def _get_bitwise_and_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: return np.array(-1).astype(dtype) def _get_bitwise_or_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: return np.array(0, dtype) def _get_sum_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: return np.array(0, dtype) def _get_prod_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: return np.array(1, dtype) def _get_max_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: if dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.inexact): return np.array(-np.inf if dtypes.supports_inf(dtype) else dtypes.finfo(dtype).min, dtype=dtype) elif dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.integer): return np.array(dtypes.iinfo(dtype).min, dtype) elif dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.bool_): return np.array(False, np.bool_) else: raise ValueError(f"Unsupported dtype for max: {dtype}") def _get_min_identity(dtype: DTypeLike) -> np.ndarray: if dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.inexact): return np.array(np.inf if dtypes.supports_inf(dtype) else dtypes.finfo(dtype).max, dtype=dtype) elif dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.integer): return np.array(dtypes.iinfo(dtype).max, dtype) elif dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.bool_): return np.array(True, np.bool_) else: raise ValueError(f"Unsupported dtype for min: {dtype}") def _reduce_sum(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_sum_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_prod(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_prod_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_max(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_max_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_min(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_min_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_or(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_or_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_and(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_and_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) def _reduce_xor(operand: ArrayLike, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: return reduce_xor_p.bind(operand, axes=tuple(axes)) @overload def sort(operand: Array, dimension: int = -1, is_stable: bool = True, num_keys: int = 1) -> Array: ... @overload def sort(operand: Sequence[Array], dimension: int = -1, is_stable: bool = True, num_keys: int = 1) -> tuple[Array, ...]: ...
[docs] def sort(operand: Array | Sequence[Array], dimension: int = -1, is_stable: bool = True, num_keys: int = 1) -> Array | tuple[Array, ...]: """Wraps XLA's `Sort <>`_ operator. For floating point inputs, -0.0 and 0.0 are treated as equivalent, and NaN values are sorted to the end of the array. For complex inputs, the sort order is lexicographic over the real and imaginary parts, with the real part primary. Args: operand : Array or sequence of arrays dimension : integer dimension along which to sort. Default: -1. is_stable : boolean specifying whether to use a stable sort. Default: True. num_keys : number of operands to treat as sort keys. Default: 1. For num_keys > 1, the sort order will be determined lexicographically using the first `num_keys` arrays, with the first key being primary. The remaining operands will be returned with the same permutation. Returns: operand : sorted version of the input or inputs. """ if isinstance(operand, Sequence): if len(operand) == 0: raise TypeError("Sort requires at least one operand") if not (1 <= num_keys <= len(operand)): raise ValueError(f"{num_keys=} must be between 1 and {len(operand)=}") dimension = canonicalize_axis(dimension, len(operand[0].shape)) return tuple(sort_p.bind(*operand, dimension=dimension, is_stable=is_stable, num_keys=num_keys)) else: if num_keys != 1: raise ValueError(f"{num_keys=} must equal 1 for a single operand.") dimension = canonicalize_axis(dimension, len(operand.shape)) return sort_p.bind(operand, dimension=dimension, is_stable=is_stable, num_keys=1)[0]
[docs] def sort_key_val(keys: Array, values: ArrayLike, dimension: int = -1, is_stable: bool = True) -> tuple[Array, Array]: """Sorts ``keys`` along ``dimension`` and applies the same permutation to ``values``.""" dimension = canonicalize_axis(dimension, len(keys.shape)) k, v = sort_p.bind(keys, values, dimension=dimension, is_stable=is_stable, num_keys=1) return k, v
[docs] def top_k(operand: ArrayLike, k: int) -> tuple[Array, Array]: """Returns top ``k`` values and their indices along the last axis of ``operand``. Args: operand: N-dimensional array of non-complex type. k: integer specifying the number of top entries. Returns: values: array containing the top k values along the last axis. indices: array containing the indices corresponding to values. See also: - :func:`jax.lax.approx_max_k` - :func:`jax.lax.approx_min_k` """ if core.is_constant_dim(k): k = int(k) if k < 0: raise ValueError(f"k argument to top_k must be nonnegative, got {k}") return top_k_p.bind(operand, k=k)
[docs] def tie_in(x: Any, y: T) -> T: """Deprecated. Ignores ``x`` and returns ``y``.""" return y
[docs] def full(shape: Shape, fill_value: ArrayLike, dtype: DTypeLike | None = None, *, sharding: Sharding | None = None) -> Array: """Returns an array of `shape` filled with `fill_value`. Args: shape: sequence of integers, describing the shape of the output array. fill_value: the value to fill the new array with. dtype: the type of the output array, or `None`. If not `None`, `fill_value` will be cast to `dtype`. sharding: an optional sharding specification for the resulting array, note, sharding will currently be ignored in jitted mode, this might change in the future. """ shape = canonicalize_shape(shape) if np.shape(fill_value): msg = "full must be called with scalar fill_value, got fill_value.shape {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(np.shape(fill_value))) if dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, dtypes.extended): return dtype._rules.full(shape, fill_value, dtype) # type: ignore[union-attr] weak_type = dtype is None and dtypes.is_weakly_typed(fill_value) dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype or _dtype(fill_value)) fill_value = _convert_element_type(fill_value, dtype, weak_type) # In tracing mode we can't set sharing explictly and PmapShardng is not # supported. # NB: Consider using with_sharding_constraint in jitted computation # if needed? if (sharding is not None and not isinstance(sharding, PmapSharding) and isinstance(fill_value, array.ArrayImpl)): broadcast_shape = sharding.shard_shape(shape) shard = broadcast(fill_value, broadcast_shape) return array.make_array_from_callback(shape, sharding, lambda _: shard) return broadcast(fill_value, shape)
def zeros_like_shaped_array(aval: ShapedArray) -> Array: assert isinstance(aval, ShapedArray) if dtypes.issubdtype(aval.dtype, dtypes.extended): scalar_zero = elif aval.dtype == dtypes.float0: scalar_zero = np.zeros((), dtype=aval.dtype) else: scalar_zero = _convert_element_type(0, aval.dtype, aval.weak_type) return broadcast(scalar_zero, aval.shape) ad_util.aval_zeros_likers[ShapedArray] = zeros_like_shaped_array
[docs] def iota(dtype: DTypeLike, size: int) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `Iota <>`_ operator. """ return broadcasted_iota(dtype, (size,), 0)
[docs] def broadcasted_iota(dtype: DTypeLike, shape: Shape, dimension: int) -> Array: """Convenience wrapper around ``iota``.""" dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) shape = canonicalize_shape(shape) dynamic_shape = [d for d in shape if isinstance(d, core.Tracer)] static_shape = [None if isinstance(d, core.Tracer) else d for d in shape] dimension = core.concrete_or_error( int, dimension, "dimension argument of lax.broadcasted_iota") return iota_p.bind(*dynamic_shape, dtype=dtype, shape=tuple(static_shape), dimension=dimension)
def _eye(dtype: DTypeLike, shape: Shape, offset: int) -> Array: """Like numpy.eye, create a 2D array with ones on a diagonal.""" offset = _clip_int_to_valid_range(offset, np.int32) dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) bool_eye = eq(add(broadcasted_iota(np.int32, shape, 0), np.int32(offset)), broadcasted_iota(np.int32, shape, 1)) return convert_element_type_p.bind(bool_eye, new_dtype=dtype, weak_type=False) def _delta(dtype: DTypeLike, shape: Shape, axes: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """This utility function exists for creating Kronecker delta arrays.""" axes = map(int, axes) dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) base_shape = tuple(np.take(shape, axes)) # type: ignore[arg-type] iotas = [broadcasted_iota(np.uint32, base_shape, i) for i in range(len(base_shape))] eyes = [eq(i1, i2) for i1, i2 in zip(iotas[:-1], iotas[1:])] result = convert_element_type_p.bind(_reduce(operator.and_, eyes), new_dtype=dtype, weak_type=False) return broadcast_in_dim(result, shape, axes) def _tri(dtype: DTypeLike, shape: Shape, offset: int) -> Array: """Like numpy.tri, create a 2D array with ones below a diagonal.""" offset = _clip_int_to_valid_range(offset, np.int32) dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) bool_tri = ge(add(broadcasted_iota(np.int32, shape, 0), np.int32(offset)), broadcasted_iota(np.int32, shape, 1)) return convert_element_type_p.bind(bool_tri, new_dtype=dtype, weak_type=False)
[docs] def stop_gradient(x: T) -> T: """Stops gradient computation. Operationally ``stop_gradient`` is the identity function, that is, it returns argument `x` unchanged. However, ``stop_gradient`` prevents the flow of gradients during forward or reverse-mode automatic differentiation. If there are multiple nested gradient computations, ``stop_gradient`` stops gradients for all of them. For example: >>> jax.grad(lambda x: x**2)(3.) Array(6., dtype=float32, weak_type=True) >>> jax.grad(lambda x: jax.lax.stop_gradient(x)**2)(3.) Array(0., dtype=float32, weak_type=True) >>> jax.grad(jax.grad(lambda x: x**2))(3.) Array(2., dtype=float32, weak_type=True) >>> jax.grad(jax.grad(lambda x: jax.lax.stop_gradient(x)**2))(3.) Array(0., dtype=float32, weak_type=True) """ def stop(x): # only bind primitive on inexact dtypes, to avoid some staging if dtypes.issubdtype(core.get_aval(x).dtype, dtypes.extended): return x elif (dtypes.issubdtype(_dtype(x), np.floating) or dtypes.issubdtype(_dtype(x), np.complexfloating)): return ad_util.stop_gradient_p.bind(x) else: return x return tree_map(stop, x)
[docs] def reduce_precision(operand: float | ArrayLike, exponent_bits: int, mantissa_bits: int) -> Array: """Wraps XLA's `ReducePrecision <>`_ operator. """ exponent_bits = core.concrete_or_error( operator.index, exponent_bits, "exponent_bits argument of lax.reduce_precision") mantissa_bits = core.concrete_or_error( operator.index, mantissa_bits, "mantissa_bits argument of lax.reduce_precision") return reduce_precision_p.bind(operand, exponent_bits=exponent_bits, mantissa_bits=mantissa_bits)
[docs] def squeeze(array: ArrayLike, dimensions: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """Squeeze any number of size 1 dimensions from an array.""" ndim = np.ndim(array) dimensions = tuple(sorted(canonicalize_axis(i, ndim) for i in dimensions)) if not dimensions and isinstance(array, Array): return type_cast(Array, array) return squeeze_p.bind(array, dimensions=dimensions)
[docs] def expand_dims(array: ArrayLike, dimensions: Sequence[int]) -> Array: """Insert any number of size 1 dimensions into an array.""" if len(set(dimensions)) != len(dimensions): raise ValueError(f'repeated axis in lax.expand_dims: {dimensions}') ndim_out = np.ndim(array) + len(dimensions) dims = [canonicalize_axis(i, ndim_out) for i in dimensions] if len(set(dims)) != len(dims): # check again after canonicalizing raise ValueError(f'repeated axis in lax.expand_dims: {dims}') dims_set = frozenset(dims) result_shape = list(np.shape(array)) for i in sorted(dims_set): result_shape.insert(i, 1) broadcast_dims = [i for i in range(ndim_out) if i not in dims_set] return broadcast_in_dim(array, result_shape, broadcast_dims)
### convenience wrappers around traceables
[docs] def full_like(x: ArrayLike | DuckTypedArray, fill_value: ArrayLike, dtype: DTypeLike | None = None, shape: Shape | None = None, sharding: Sharding | None = None) -> Array: """Create a full array like np.full based on the example array `x`. Args: x: example array-like, used for shape and dtype information. fill_value: a scalar value to fill the entries of the output array. dtype: optional, a dtype parameter for the output ndarray. shape: optional, a shape parameter for the output ndarray. sharding: an optional sharding specification for the resulting array. If not specified, the output will have the same sharding as the input, with a few exceptions/limitations in particular: 1. Sharding is not available during tracing, thus this will rely on jit. 2. If x is weakly typed or uncomitted, will use default sharding. 3. Shape is not None and is different from x.shape, default will be used. Returns: An ndarray with the same shape as `x` with its entries set equal to `fill_value`, similar to the output of np.full. """ fill_shape = np.shape(x) if shape is None else canonicalize_shape(shape) # type: ignore[arg-type] weak_type = dtype is None and dtypes.is_weakly_typed(x) dtype = dtype or _dtype(x) if dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, dtypes.extended): return dtype._rules.full(fill_shape, fill_value, dtype) # type: ignore[union-attr] # If `x` has a sharding but no `_committed` attribute # (in case of ShapeDtypeStruct), default it to True. use_x_sharding = ( sharding is None # Tracer have special logic in handling sharding and even # though hasattr(x, 'sharding') returns False, it is very slow. # This bypasses the check. and not isinstance(x, core.Tracer) and hasattr(x, 'sharding') and getattr(x, '_committed', True) and not weak_type and fill_shape == np.shape(x) # type: ignore[arg-type] ) # type: ignore if use_x_sharding: # TODO(yashkatariya): Use shard_alike in tracing_mode once it is supported. sharding = x.sharding # type: ignore val = full(fill_shape, _convert_element_type(fill_value, dtype, weak_type), sharding=sharding) return val
[docs] def collapse(operand: Array, start_dimension: int, stop_dimension: int | None = None) -> Array: """Collapses dimensions of an array into a single dimension. For example, if ``operand`` is an array with shape ``[2, 3, 4]``, ``collapse(operand, 0, 2).shape == [6, 4]``. The elements of the collapsed dimension are laid out major-to-minor, i.e., with the lowest-numbered dimension as the slowest varying dimension. Args: operand: an input array. start_dimension: the start of the dimensions to collapse (inclusive). stop_dimension: the end of the dimensions to collapse (exclusive). Pass None to collapse all the dimensions after start. Returns: An array where dimensions ``[start_dimension, stop_dimension)`` have been collapsed (raveled) into a single dimension. """ lo, hi, _ = slice(start_dimension, stop_dimension).indices(len(operand.shape)) if hi < lo: raise ValueError(f"Invalid dimension range passed to collapse: {operand.shape}" f"[{start_dimension}:{stop_dimension}]") size =[lo:hi]) new_shape = operand.shape[:lo] + (size,) + operand.shape[hi:] return reshape(operand, new_shape)
[docs] def batch_matmul(lhs: Array, rhs: Array, precision: PrecisionLike = None) -> Array: """Batch matrix multiplication.""" if _min(lhs.ndim, rhs.ndim) < 2: raise ValueError('Arguments to batch_matmul must be at least 2D, got {}, {}' .format(lhs.ndim, rhs.ndim)) if lhs.ndim != rhs.ndim: raise ValueError('Arguments to batch_matmul must have same ndim, got {}, {}' .format(lhs.ndim, rhs.ndim)) lhs_contract = (lhs.ndim - 1,) rhs_contract = (rhs.ndim - 2,) batch = tuple(range(lhs.ndim - 2)) return dot_general(lhs, rhs, ((lhs_contract, rhs_contract), (batch, batch)), precision=precision)
# These functions also exist in the XLA client library, but we treat them # as non-primitive to maintain a smaller set of autodiff primitives.
[docs] def square(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise square: :math:`x^2`.""" return integer_pow(x, 2)
[docs] def reciprocal(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise reciprocal: :math:`1 \over x`.""" return integer_pow(x, -1)
def _upcast_fp16_for_computation(f): @functools.wraps(f) def f_wrapped(x): dtype = _dtype(x) if dtype == np.float16 or dtype == dtypes.bfloat16: return convert_element_type( f(convert_element_type(x, np.float32)), dtype) return f(x) return f_wrapped
[docs] def tan(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise tangent: :math:`\mathrm{tan}(x)`.""" return tan_p.bind(x)
[docs] def asin(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise arc sine: :math:`\mathrm{asin}(x)`.""" return asin_p.bind(x)
[docs] def acos(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise arc cosine: :math:`\mathrm{acos}(x)`.""" return acos_p.bind(x)
[docs] def atan(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise arc tangent: :math:`\mathrm{atan}(x)`.""" return atan_p.bind(x)
[docs] def sinh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise hyperbolic sine: :math:`\mathrm{sinh}(x)`.""" return sinh_p.bind(x)
[docs] def cosh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise hyperbolic cosine: :math:`\mathrm{cosh}(x)`.""" return cosh_p.bind(x)
[docs] def asinh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise inverse hyperbolic sine: :math:`\mathrm{asinh}(x)`.""" return asinh_p.bind(x)
[docs] def acosh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise inverse hyperbolic cosine: :math:`\mathrm{acosh}(x)`.""" return acosh_p.bind(x)
[docs] def atanh(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: r"""Elementwise inverse hyperbolic tangent: :math:`\mathrm{atanh}(x)`.""" return atanh_p.bind(x)
# Add some methods to ShapedArray that rely on lax primitives ShapedArray.broadcast = core.aval_method(broadcast) ShapedArray.transpose = core.aval_method(transpose) # clobbered by lax_numpy ShapedArray.reshape = core.aval_method(reshape) # clobbered by lax_numpy def _iter(tracer): if tracer.ndim == 0: raise TypeError("iteration over a 0-d array") # same as numpy error else: n = int(tracer.shape[0]) if any(isinstance(d, core.Tracer) for d in tracer.shape): return (slicing.dynamic_index_in_dim(tracer, i, keepdims=False) for i in range(n)) else: return (slicing.index_in_dim(tracer, i, keepdims=False) for i in range(n)) ShapedArray._iter = staticmethod(_iter) core.DShapedArray._iter = staticmethod(_iter)
[docs] def zeros_like_array(x: ArrayLike) -> Array: return full_like(x, 0)
def _add_arrays(x, y): if (isinstance(a := core.get_aval(x), ShapedArray) and dtypes.issubdtype(a.dtype, dtypes.extended)): return dtype._rules.add(dtype, x, y) # type: ignore return add(x, y) for t in itertools.chain( dtypes.python_scalar_dtypes.keys(), array_types, [array.ArrayImpl]): ad_util.raw_jaxval_adders[t] = _add_arrays ### primitives _fixed_dtype = \ lambda dtype: lambda *args, **kwargs: dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) _complex_basetype = lambda dtype: np.abs(np.zeros((), dtype)).dtype _strip_weak_type = lambda *args, **_: False def unop_dtype_rule(result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name, aval, **kwargs): if aval.dtype == dtypes.float0: raise TypeError( f"Called {name} with a float0 array. " "float0s do not support any operations by design, because they " "are not compatible with non-trivial vector spaces. No implicit dtype " "conversion is done. You can use np.zeros_like(arr, dtype=np.float) " "to cast a float0 array to a regular zeros array. \n" "If you didn't expect to get a float0 you might have accidentally " "taken a gradient with respect to an integer argument.") if not any(dtypes.issubdtype(aval.dtype, t) for t in accepted_dtypes): msg = '{} does not accept dtype {}. Accepted dtypes are subtypes of {}.' typename = dtype_to_string(aval.dtype) accepted_typenames = (t.__name__ for t in accepted_dtypes) raise TypeError(msg.format(name, typename, ', '.join(accepted_typenames))) return result_dtype(aval.dtype) def unop(result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name): dtype_rule = partial(unop_dtype_rule, result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name) prim = standard_primitive(_attrgetter('shape'), dtype_rule, name) batching.defvectorized(prim) pe.def_trivial_padding(prim) return prim standard_unop = partial(unop, _identity) _attrgetter = lambda name: lambda x, **kwargs: getattr(x, name) def naryop_dtype_rule(result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name, *avals, require_same=True, allow_extended_dtype=False, **kwargs): del kwargs assert len(avals) == len(accepted_dtypes), (avals, accepted_dtypes) for i, aval in enumerate(avals): if allow_extended_dtype and isinstance(aval.dtype, dtypes.ExtendedDType): continue types = accepted_dtypes[i] if not any(dtypes.issubdtype(aval.dtype, t) for t in types): if aval.dtype == dtypes.float0: raise TypeError( f"Called {name} with a float0 at position {i}. " "float0s do not support any operations by design, because they " "are not compatible with non-trivial vector spaces. No implicit dtype " "conversion is done. You can use np.zeros_like(arr, dtype=np.float) " "to cast a float0 array to a regular zeros array. \n" "If you didn't expect to get a float0 you might have accidentally " "taken a gradient with respect to an integer argument.") else: msg = ('{} does not accept dtype {} at position {}. ' 'Accepted dtypes at position {} are subtypes of {}.') typename = dtype_to_string(aval.dtype) typenames = ', '.join(t.__name__ for t in types) raise TypeError(msg.format(name, typename, i, i, typenames)) if require_same: check_same_dtypes(name, *avals) return result_dtype(*avals) def broadcasting_shape_rule(name, *avals): shapes = [aval.shape for aval in avals if aval.shape] if not shapes: return () if len({len(shape) for shape in shapes}) != 1: msg = '{}: arrays must have same number of dimensions, got {}.' raise TypeError(msg.format(name, ', '.join(map(str, map(tuple, shapes))))) # TODO(mattjj): de-duplicate with _try_broadcast_shapes result_shape = [] for ds in zip(*shapes): if all(core.same_referent(d, ds[0]) for d in ds[1:]): # if all axes are identical objects, the resulting size is the object result_shape.append(ds[0]) else: # if all dims are equal (or 1), the result is the non-1 size non_1s = [d for d in ds if not core.definitely_equal(d, 1)] if not non_1s: result_shape.append(1) elif all(core.definitely_equal(non_1s[0], d) for d in non_1s[1:]): result_shape.append(non_1s[0]) else: raise TypeError(f'{name} got incompatible shapes for broadcasting: ' f'{", ".join(map(str, map(tuple, shapes)))}.') return tuple(result_shape) def naryop(result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name, allow_extended_dtype=False, require_same_dtypes=False): dtype_rule = partial(naryop_dtype_rule, result_dtype, accepted_dtypes, name, allow_extended_dtype=allow_extended_dtype, require_same=require_same_dtypes) shape_rule = partial(broadcasting_shape_rule, name) prim = standard_primitive(shape_rule, dtype_rule, name) batching.defbroadcasting(prim) pe.def_trivial_padding(prim) return prim standard_naryop = partial(naryop, _input_dtype) def _broadcast_translate(op, ctx, avals_in, avals_out, *args): """Variant of _standard_translate that performs explicit broadcasting. Not all XLA library functions perform their own broadcasting.""" aval_out, = avals_out broadcasted_args = [] for aval_in, arg in zip(avals_in, args): if aval_out.shape != aval_in.shape: bcast_dims = tuple(range(len(aval_out.shape) - len(aval_in.shape), len(aval_out.shape))) arg = xops.BroadcastInDim(arg, aval_out.shape, bcast_dims) broadcasted_args.append(arg) return [op(*broadcasted_args)] # Like autograd.numpy.numpy_vjps.unbroadcast, this utility handles transposition # involving linear primitives with implicit broadcasting. def _unbroadcast(aval, x): if not isinstance(aval, (core.DShapedArray, ShapedArray)): raise TypeError("transpose with implicit broadcasting of unshaped values") x_shape = np.shape(x) if core.definitely_equal_shape(aval.shape, x_shape): return x assert not aval.shape or len(x_shape) == len(aval.shape) if not aval.shape: return _reduce_sum(x, list(range(len(x_shape)))) else: dims = [i for i, (a, b) in enumerate(zip(x_shape, aval.shape)) if not core.definitely_equal(a, b)] if config.enable_checks.value: assert all(aval.shape[i] == 1 for i in dims) return reshape(_reduce_sum(x, dims), aval.shape) def _maybe_broadcast(target_shape, x): x_shape = np.shape(x) if core.definitely_equal_shape(x_shape, target_shape): return x elif not x_shape: return broadcast_in_dim(x, target_shape, ()) else: dims = [i for i, (a, b) in enumerate(zip(x_shape, target_shape)) if core.definitely_equal(a, b)] squeeze_shape = [x_shape[i] for i in dims] return broadcast_in_dim(reshape(x, squeeze_shape), target_shape, dims) def broadcast_hlo( aval_out: core.ShapedArray, avals: Sequence[core.ShapedArray], args: Sequence[ir.Value]) -> Sequence[ir.Value]: """Broadcasts HLO values with broadcast-compatible shapes to the same shape. """ out = [] for aval, arg in zip(avals, args): if aval.shape != aval_out.shape: assert len(aval.shape) <= len(aval_out.shape), (aval, aval_out) dims = mlir.dense_int_array_v6( range(len(aval_out.shape) - len(aval.shape), len(aval_out.shape))) if any(isinstance(d, ir.Value) for d in aval_out.shape): arg = hlo.dynamic_broadcast_in_dim( mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval_out), arg, mlir.shape_tensor(aval_out.shape), dims) else: arg = hlo.broadcast_in_dim( mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval.update(shape=aval_out.shape)), arg, dims) out.append(arg) return out def _nary_lower_hlo(op: Callable, ctx, *args: ir.Value | Sequence[ir.Value], explicit_type=False, **params) -> Sequence[ir.Value]: """Lowers an elementwise operator to its MLIR equivalent. Args: explicit_type: does the MLIR op require its output type to be provided? """ del params avals_in, (aval_out,) = ctx.avals_in, ctx.avals_out broadcasted_args = mlir.multi_broadcast_in_dim( ctx, args, avals_in, aval_out.shape) if explicit_type: return [op(mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval_out), *broadcasted_args)] else: return [op(*broadcasted_args)] _float = {np.floating} _complex = {np.complexfloating} _complex_elem_types = {np.float32, np.float64} _int = {np.integer} _bool = {np.bool_} _signedint = {np.signedinteger} _num = _int | _float | _complex _any = _int | _float | _complex | _bool _bool_or_int = _int | _bool _ordered = _int | _float | _bool neg_p = standard_unop(_num, 'neg') ad.deflinear2(neg_p, lambda t, operand: [neg(t)]) mlir.register_lowering(neg_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.negate)) sign_p = standard_unop(_num, 'sign') ad.defjvp_zero(sign_p) def _sign_lower_hlo(ctx, x): x_aval, = ctx.avals_in if dtypes.issubdtype(x_aval.dtype, np.unsignedinteger): return [ mlir.compare_hlo(x, mlir.full_like_aval(ctx, 0, x_aval), 'EQ', 'UNSIGNED'), mlir.full_like_aval(ctx, 0, x_aval), mlir.full_like_aval(ctx, 1, x_aval))] return [hlo.sign(x)] mlir.register_lowering(sign_p, _sign_lower_hlo) nextafter_p = standard_naryop([_float, _float], 'nextafter') mlir.register_lowering(nextafter_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.next_after)) floor_p = standard_unop(_float, 'floor') ad.defjvp_zero(floor_p) mlir.register_lowering(floor_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.floor)) ceil_p = standard_unop(_float, 'ceil') ad.defjvp_zero(ceil_p) mlir.register_lowering(ceil_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.ceil)) round_p = standard_unop(_float, 'round') ad.defjvp_zero(round_p) def _round_lower(ctx, x, *, rounding_method): if rounding_method is RoundingMethod.AWAY_FROM_ZERO: return [hlo.round_nearest_afz(x)] else: assert rounding_method is RoundingMethod.TO_NEAREST_EVEN return [hlo.round_nearest_even(x)] mlir.register_lowering(round_p, _round_lower) is_finite_p = unop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), _float, 'is_finite') ad.defjvp_zero(is_finite_p) mlir.register_lowering(is_finite_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.is_finite)) exp_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'exp') ad.defjvp2(exp_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, ans)) mlir.register_lowering(exp_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.exponential)) exp2_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'exp2') ad.defjvp2(exp2_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(log(_const(x, 2)), mul(g, ans))) def _exp2_lower(ctx, x): x_aval, = ctx.avals_in log2 = mlir.ir_constant(np.array(np.log(2), x_aval.dtype)) log2 = mlir.broadcast_in_dim(ctx, log2, x_aval, broadcast_dimensions=()) return [hlo.exponential(hlo.multiply(log2, x))] mlir.register_lowering(exp2_p, _exp2_lower) log_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'log') ad.defjvp(log_p, lambda g, x: div(g, x)) mlir.register_lowering(log_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.log)) expm1_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'expm1') ad.defjvp2(expm1_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, add(ans, _one(ans)))) mlir.register_lowering(expm1_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.exponential_minus_one)) log1p_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'log1p') ad.defjvp(log1p_p, lambda g, x: div(g, add(x, _one(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(log1p_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.log_plus_one)) tanh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'tanh') ad.defjvp2(tanh_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(add(g, mul(g, ans)), sub(_one(x), ans))) mlir.register_lowering(tanh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.tanh)) logistic_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'logistic') ad.defjvp2(logistic_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, mul(ans, sub(_one(ans), ans)))) # TODO(phawkins): switch to LogisticOp lowering; debug numerical problems. # mlir.register_lowering(logistic_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.logistic)) def logistic_impl(x): one = _const(x, 1) return div(one, add(one, exp(neg(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(logistic_p, mlir.lower_fun(logistic_impl, multiple_results=False)) def _sin_complex(x): # use expm1 instead of exp to avoid cancellation when abs(x) is small # relies on the quality of real-valued expm1, sin, cos # sin(x) = complex(sin(real(x)) * cosh(imag(x)), cos(real(x)) * sinh(imag(x))) # 2 * sinh(x) = exp(x) - 1 - (exp(-x) - 1) = expm1(x) - expm1(-x) # 2 * cosh(x) = exp(x) - 1 + (exp(-x) - 1) + 2 = expm1(x) + expm1(-x) + 2 a, b = real(x), imag(x) a_is_zero = eq(a, _const(a, 0)) sn, cs = sin(a), cos(a) e1m, e2m = expm1(b), expm1(-b) snh, csh = (e1m - e2m) / 2, (e1m + e2m + 2) / 2 re, im = sn * csh, cs * snh # avoid nan value when real(x) is zero and abs(x) is so large that abs(expm1(x)) is inf return select(a_is_zero, complex(_const(a, 0), im), complex(re, im)) def _sin_lowering(ctx, x): if dtypes.issubdtype(ctx.avals_in[0].dtype, np.complexfloating): sine = mlir.lower_fun(_sin_complex, multiple_results=False) return sine(ctx, x) return _nary_lower_hlo(hlo.sine, ctx, x) sin_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'sin') ad.defjvp(sin_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, cos(x))) mlir.register_lowering(sin_p, _sin_lowering) def _cos_complex(x): # cos(x) = complex(cos(real(x)) * cosh(imag(x)), -sin(real(x)) * sinh(imag(x))) # see also _sin_complex a, b = real(x), imag(x) a_is_zero = eq(a, _const(a, 0)) sn, cs = sin(a), cos(a) e1m, e2m = expm1(b), expm1(-b) snh, csh = (e1m - e2m) / 2, (e1m + e2m + 2) / 2 re, im = cs * csh, -sn * snh return select(a_is_zero, complex(re, _const(a, 0)), complex(re, im)) def _cos_lowering(ctx, x): if dtypes.issubdtype(ctx.avals_in[0].dtype, np.complexfloating): cosine = mlir.lower_fun(_cos_complex, multiple_results=False) return cosine(ctx, x) return _nary_lower_hlo(hlo.cosine, ctx, x) cos_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'cos') ad.defjvp(cos_p, lambda g, x: neg(mul(g, sin(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(cos_p, _cos_lowering) @_upcast_fp16_for_computation def _tan_impl(x): return div(sin(x), cos(x)) tan_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'tan') ad.defjvp2(tan_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, _const(x, 1) + square(ans))) mlir.register_lowering(tan_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.tan)) def asin_impl(x): if dtypes.issubdtype(_dtype(x), np.complexfloating): return mul(_const(x, -1j), asinh(mul(_const(x, 1j), x))) else: return mul(_const(x, 2), atan2(x, add(_const(x, 1), sqrt(sub(_const(x, 1), square(x)))))) asin_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'asin') ad.defjvp(asin_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, rsqrt(_const(x, 1) - square(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(asin_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.asin)) def acos_impl(x): if dtypes.issubdtype(_dtype(x), np.complexfloating): result = mul(_const(x, 1j), acosh(x)) # By convention, numpy chooses the branch with positive real part. rpart = real(result) return select( gt(rpart, _const(rpart, 0)), result, neg(result) ) else: return select( ne(x, _const(x, -1.0)), mul(_const(x, 2), atan2(sqrt(sub(_const(x, 1), square(x))), add(_const(x, 1), x))), full_like(x, np.pi)) acos_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'acos') ad.defjvp(acos_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, -rsqrt(_const(x, 1) - square(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(acos_p, mlir.lower_fun(acos_impl, multiple_results=False)) def atan_impl(x): return atan2(x, _const(x, 1)) atan_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'atan') ad.defjvp(atan_p, lambda g, x: div(g, _const(x, 1) + square(x))) mlir.register_lowering(atan_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.atan)) atan2_p = standard_naryop([_float | _complex, _float | _complex], 'atan2') ad.defjvp(atan2_p, lambda g, x, y: g * (y / (square(x) + square(y))), lambda g, x, y: g * -x / (square(x) + square(y))) mlir.register_lowering(atan2_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.atan2)) sinh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'sinh') ad.defjvp(sinh_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, cosh(x))) mlir.register_lowering(sinh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.sinh)) cosh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'cosh') ad.defjvp(cosh_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, sinh(x))) mlir.register_lowering(cosh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.cosh)) asinh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'asinh') ad.defjvp(asinh_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, rsqrt(square(x) + _one(x)))) mlir.register_lowering(asinh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.asinh)) acosh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'acosh') ad.defjvp(acosh_p, lambda g, x: mul(g, rsqrt((x - _one(x)) * (x + _one(x))))) mlir.register_lowering(acosh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.acosh)) atanh_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'atanh') ad.defjvp(atanh_p, lambda g, x: mul(reciprocal(_one(x) + x), div(g, (_one(x) - x)))) mlir.register_lowering(atanh_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, chlo.atanh)) real_p = unop(_complex_basetype, _complex, 'real') ad.deflinear2(real_p, lambda t, _: [complex(t, np.zeros((), _dtype(t)))]) mlir.register_lowering(real_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.real)) imag_p = unop(_complex_basetype, _complex, 'imag') ad.deflinear2(imag_p, lambda t, _: [complex(np.zeros((), _dtype(t)), neg(t))]) mlir.register_lowering(imag_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.imag)) def _complex_transpose_rule(t, x, y): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) or ad.is_undefined_primal(y) if ad.is_undefined_primal(x) and ad.is_undefined_primal(y): if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x.aval), ad_util.Zero(y.aval)] else: return [_unbroadcast(x.aval, real(t)), _unbroadcast(y.aval, imag(neg(t)))] elif ad.is_undefined_primal(x): if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x.aval), None] else: return [_unbroadcast(x.aval, real(t)), None] else: if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [None, ad_util.Zero(y.aval)] else: return [None, _unbroadcast(y.aval, imag(neg(t)))] _complex_dtype = lambda dtype, *args: (np.zeros((), dtype) + np.zeros((), np.complex64)).dtype complex_p = naryop(_complex_dtype, [_complex_elem_types, _complex_elem_types], 'complex') ad.deflinear2(complex_p, _complex_transpose_rule) mlir.register_lowering(complex_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.complex)) conj_p = unop(_complex_dtype, _complex_elem_types | _complex, 'conj') def _conj_impl(x, **kw): if dtypes.issubdtype(x.dtype, np.complexfloating): return complex(real(x), -imag(x)) else: return complex(x, _zeros(x)) mlir.register_lowering(conj_p, mlir.lower_fun(_conj_impl, multiple_results=False)) def _conj_transpose_rule(t, x, *, input_dtype): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x.aval)] elif dtypes.issubdtype(input_dtype, np.complexfloating): return [conj(t)] else: return [real(t)] ad.primitive_jvps[conj_p] = partial(ad.linear_jvp, conj_p) ad.primitive_transposes[conj_p] = _conj_transpose_rule abs_p = unop(_complex_basetype, _signedint | _float | _complex, 'abs') mlir.register_lowering(abs_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.abs)) def _abs_jvp_rule(g, ans, x): if _iscomplex(x): return _maybe_real(mul(g, div(_maybe_conj(x), _replace_zero(convert_element_type(ans, _dtype(x)))))) else: return select(ge(x, _zero(x)), g, neg(g)) ad.defjvp2(abs_p, _abs_jvp_rule) _maybe_conj = lambda x: conj(x) if _iscomplex(x) else x _maybe_real = lambda x: real(x) if _iscomplex(x) else x sqrt_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'sqrt') ad.defjvp2(sqrt_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, div(_const(x, 0.5), ans))) mlir.register_lowering(sqrt_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.sqrt)) rsqrt_p = standard_unop(_float | _complex, 'rsqrt') ad.defjvp2(rsqrt_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, mul(_const(x, -0.5), div(ans, x)))) mlir.register_lowering(rsqrt_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.rsqrt)) cbrt_p = standard_unop(_float, 'cbrt') ad.defjvp2(cbrt_p, lambda g, ans, x: mul(g, mul(_const(x, 1/3), integer_pow(ans, -2)))) mlir.register_lowering(cbrt_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.cbrt)) def _pow_dtype_rule(x, y): if (dtypes.issubdtype(x.dtype, np.inexact) and dtypes.issubdtype(y.dtype, np.integer)): return x.dtype if x.dtype == y.dtype: return x.dtype raise TypeError("the first argument to pow must have an inexact dtype (float " "or complex), and the second argument must have an inexact or" " integer dtype, and two inexact dtypes must match, but got " f"{x.dtype} and {y.dtype} respectively.") pow_p = naryop(_pow_dtype_rule, [_float | _complex, _int | _float | _complex], 'pow', require_same_dtypes=False) def _pow_jvp_lhs(g, ans, x, y): y_dtype = dtypes.dtype(y) x, y = jax._src.numpy.util.promote_dtypes_numeric(x, y) # TODO replace this if dtypes.issubdtype(y_dtype, np.integer): if x.shape != y.shape: shape = broadcast_shapes(x.shape, y.shape) x = _maybe_broadcast(shape, x) y = _maybe_broadcast(shape, y) jac = select(eq(y, _const(y, 0)), _zeros(y), mul(_replace_zero(y), pow(x, sub(y, _ones(y))))) else: jac = mul(y, pow(x, sub(y, _ones(y)))) return mul(g, jac) def _pow_jvp_rhs(g, ans, x, y): y_dtype = dtypes.dtype(y) assert dtypes.issubdtype(y_dtype, np.inexact) return convert_element_type(mul(g, mul(log(_replace_zero(x)), ans)), y_dtype) ad.defjvp2(pow_p, _pow_jvp_lhs, _pow_jvp_rhs) def _pow_lower(ctx, x, y): x_aval, y_aval = ctx.avals_in out_aval, = ctx.avals_out convert = mlir.lower_fun( partial(convert_element_type, new_dtype=out_aval.dtype), False) x_aval_ = x_aval.update(dtype=out_aval.dtype) y_aval_ = y_aval.update(dtype=out_aval.dtype) [(x_,)] = convert(ctx.replace(avals_in=[x_aval], avals_out=[x_aval_]), x) [(y_,)] = convert(ctx.replace(avals_in=[y_aval], avals_out=[y_aval_]), y) ctx_ = ctx.replace(avals_in=[x_aval_, y_aval_]) return _nary_lower_hlo(hlo.power, ctx_, x_, y_) mlir.register_lowering(pow_p, _pow_lower) def _integer_pow_dtype_rule(x, *, y): dtype = unop_dtype_rule(_identity, _int | _float | _complex, 'integer_pow', x) if y < 0 and dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, np.integer): raise TypeError("Integers cannot be raised to negative powers, got " f"integer_pow({x}, {y})") return dtype def _integer_pow_jvp(g, x, *, y): return _zeros(g) if y == 0 else mul(g, mul(_const(x, y), integer_pow(x, y - 1))) integer_pow_p = standard_primitive( _attrgetter('shape'), _integer_pow_dtype_rule, 'integer_pow') batching.defvectorized(integer_pow_p) ad.defjvp(integer_pow_p, _integer_pow_jvp) pe.def_trivial_padding(integer_pow_p) def _integer_pow(x, *, y): # This should be kept in sync with the jax2tf translation rule. if y == 0: return full_like(x, 1) is_reciprocal = y < 0 if is_reciprocal: y = -y acc = None while y > 0: if y & 1: acc = x if acc is None else mul(acc, x) y >>= 1 if y > 0: # We don't call square because it calls integer_pow. x = mul(x, x) return div(full_like(acc, 1), acc) if is_reciprocal else acc def _integer_pow_lowering(ctx, x, *, y): # These cases are subsumed by the general case, but it's faster to emit these # common cases directly. if y == 2: return (hlo.multiply(x, x),) elif y == 3: return (hlo.multiply(hlo.multiply(x, x), x),) else: lowering = mlir.lower_fun(_integer_pow, multiple_results=False) # TODO(b/217551391): emitting an out-of-line call leads to a large # expansion when the MLIR is lowered to HLO, because the HLO lowering # clones the callee. Consider unconditionally caching when the MLIR->HLO # lowering doesn't expand the program. lowering = mlir.cache_lowering(lowering) return lowering(ctx, x, y=y) mlir.register_lowering(integer_pow_p, _integer_pow_lowering) _replace_zero = lambda x: select(eq(x, _const(x, 0)), _ones(x), x) not_p = standard_unop(_bool_or_int, 'not') ad.defjvp_zero(not_p) mlir.register_lowering(not_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.not_)) and_p = standard_naryop([_bool_or_int, _bool_or_int], 'and') ad.defjvp_zero(and_p) mlir.register_lowering(and_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.and_)) or_p = standard_naryop([_bool_or_int, _bool_or_int], 'or') ad.defjvp_zero(or_p) mlir.register_lowering(or_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.or_)) xor_p = standard_naryop([_bool_or_int, _bool_or_int], 'xor') ad.defjvp_zero(xor_p) mlir.register_lowering(xor_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.xor)) population_count_p = standard_unop(_int, 'population_count') mlir.register_lowering(population_count_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.popcnt)) clz_p = standard_unop(_int, 'clz') mlir.register_lowering(clz_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.count_leading_zeros)) def _add_jvp(primals, tangents): x, y = primals xdot, ydot = tangents primal_out = add(x, y) if type(xdot) is type(ydot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, ad_util.Zero.from_value(primal_out) if type(xdot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, _maybe_broadcast(primal_out.shape, ydot) elif type(ydot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, _maybe_broadcast(primal_out.shape, xdot) else: return primal_out, add(xdot, ydot) def _add_transpose(t, x, y): # Morally the following assertion is true, but because we instantiate zeros in # some places (e.g. in custom_jvp) it may not always hold. For example, see #'s CustomJVPTest.test_jaxpr_zeros. # assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) and ad.is_undefined_primal(y) x_aval = x.aval if ad.is_undefined_primal(x) else _abstractify(x) y_aval = y.aval if ad.is_undefined_primal(y) else _abstractify(y) if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x_aval), ad_util.Zero(y_aval)] else: return [_unbroadcast(x_aval, t), _unbroadcast(y_aval, t)] def _add_inverse(r, x, y): xr = r - y yr = r - x return xr, yr # TODO(slebedev): Why does mypy fail to infer the type here? add_p: Primitive = standard_naryop([_num, _num], 'add') ad.primitive_jvps[add_p] = _add_jvp ad.primitive_transposes[add_p] = _add_transpose mlir.register_lowering(add_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.add)) def _sub_jvp(primals, tangents): x, y = primals xdot, ydot = tangents primal_out = sub(x, y) if type(xdot) is type(ydot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, ad_util.Zero.from_value(primal_out) if type(xdot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, _maybe_broadcast(primal_out.shape, neg(ydot)) elif type(ydot) is ad_util.Zero: return primal_out, _maybe_broadcast(primal_out.shape, xdot) else: return primal_out, sub(xdot, ydot) def _sub_transpose(t, x, y): # Morally the following assertion is true, but see the comment in add_p's # transpose rule. # assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) and ad.is_undefined_primal(y) x_aval = x.aval if ad.is_undefined_primal(x) else _abstractify(x) y_aval = y.aval if ad.is_undefined_primal(y) else _abstractify(y) if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x_aval), ad_util.Zero(y_aval)] else: return [_unbroadcast(x_aval, t), _unbroadcast(y_aval, neg(t))] sub_p = standard_naryop([_num, _num], 'sub') ad.primitive_jvps[sub_p] = _sub_jvp ad.primitive_transposes[sub_p] = _sub_transpose mlir.register_lowering(sub_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.subtract)) def _mul_transpose(ct, x, y): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) ^ ad.is_undefined_primal(y) if ad.is_undefined_primal(x): if type(ct) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x.aval), None] else: return [_unbroadcast(x.aval, mul(ct, y)), None] else: if type(ct) is ad_util.Zero: return [None, ad_util.Zero(y.aval)] else: return [None, _unbroadcast(y.aval, mul(x, ct))] def _mul_inverse(r, x, y): xr = r / y yr = r / x return xr, yr mul_p = standard_naryop([_num, _num], 'mul') ad.defjvp(mul_p, lambda xdot, x, y: mul(xdot, y), lambda ydot, x, y: mul(x, ydot)) ad.primitive_transposes[mul_p] = _mul_transpose mlir.register_lowering(mul_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.multiply)) def _div_transpose_rule(cotangent, x, y): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(x) and not ad.is_undefined_primal(y) if type(cotangent) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(x.aval), None] else: return [_unbroadcast(x.aval, div(cotangent, y)), None] div_p = standard_naryop([_num, _num], 'div') ad.defjvp(div_p, lambda g, x, y: div(g, y), lambda g, x, y: mul(mul(neg(g), x), integer_pow(y, -2))) ad.primitive_transposes[div_p] = _div_transpose_rule mlir.register_lowering(div_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.divide)) rem_p = standard_naryop([_int | _float, _int | _float], 'rem') ad.defjvp( rem_p, lambda g, x, y: _maybe_broadcast(broadcast_shapes(np.shape(x), np.shape(y)), g), lambda g, x, y: mul(neg(g), mul(sign(div(x, y)), floor(abs(div(x, y)))))) mlir.register_lowering(rem_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.remainder)) def _minmax_complex_lowering(x, y, *, lax_cmp_pick_x): result_shape = broadcast_shapes(np.shape(x), np.shape(y)) x = _maybe_broadcast(result_shape, x) y = _maybe_broadcast(result_shape, y) rx = real(x) ry = real(y) pick_x = select(eq(rx, ry), lax_cmp_pick_x(imag(x), imag(y)), lax_cmp_pick_x(rx, ry)) return select(pick_x, x, y) max_p: core.Primitive = standard_naryop([_any, _any], 'max') ad.defjvp2(max_p, lambda g, ans, x, y: mul(g, _balanced_eq(x, ans, y)), lambda g, ans, x, y: mul(g, _balanced_eq(y, ans, x))) mlir.register_lowering(max_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, mlir.max_hlo)) min_p: core.Primitive = standard_naryop([_any, _any], 'min') ad.defjvp2(min_p, lambda g, ans, x, y: mul(g, _balanced_eq(x, ans, y)), lambda g, ans, x, y: mul(g, _balanced_eq(y, ans, x))) mlir.register_lowering(min_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, mlir.min_hlo)) shift_left_p = standard_naryop([_int, _int], 'shift_left') ad.defjvp_zero(shift_left_p) mlir.register_lowering(shift_left_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.shift_left)) shift_right_arithmetic_p = standard_naryop([_int, _int], 'shift_right_arithmetic') ad.defjvp_zero(shift_right_arithmetic_p) mlir.register_lowering(shift_right_arithmetic_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.shift_right_arithmetic)) shift_right_logical_p = standard_naryop([_int, _int], 'shift_right_logical') ad.defjvp_zero(shift_right_logical_p) mlir.register_lowering(shift_right_logical_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.shift_right_logical)) def _opaque_comparison_hlo(direction, reduction_op, identity, ctx, avals_in, aval_out, x, y): aval_x, aval_y = avals_in base_aval_x = core.physical_aval(aval_x) base_aval_y = core.physical_aval(aval_y) base_aval_out = core.ShapedArray(base_aval_x.shape, aval_out.dtype) reduce_axes = tuple(range(aval_out.ndim, base_aval_out.ndim)) res, = mlir.delegate_lowering( ctx, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, direction, False), x, y, avals_in=[base_aval_x, base_aval_y], avals_out=[base_aval_out]) return mlir.delegate_lowering( ctx, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, reduction_op, identity, axes=reduce_axes), res, avals_in=[base_aval_out], avals_out=[aval_out]) _opaque_eq_hlo = partial( _opaque_comparison_hlo, 'EQ', hlo.AndOp, _get_bitwise_and_identity) _opaque_ne_hlo = partial( _opaque_comparison_hlo, 'NE', hlo.OrOp, _get_bitwise_or_identity) def _compare_lower_hlo_opaque(direction: str, ctx, avals_in, aval_out, x, y): broadcast_avals_in = tuple( core.ShapedArray(aval_out.shape, aval.dtype) for aval in avals_in) if direction == 'EQ': return _opaque_eq_hlo(ctx, broadcast_avals_in, aval_out, x, y) elif direction == 'NE': return _opaque_ne_hlo(ctx, broadcast_avals_in, aval_out, x, y) else: raise NotImplementedError( f"HLO comparison {direction} for extended dtype {avals_in[0].dtype}") def _compare_lower_hlo(direction: str, total_order: bool, ctx, x, y): avals_in, (aval_out,) = ctx.avals_in, ctx.avals_out x_dtype = avals_in[0].dtype x, y = mlir.multi_broadcast_in_dim(ctx, (x, y), avals_in, aval_out.shape) if dtypes.issubdtype(x_dtype, dtypes.extended): assert not total_order return _compare_lower_hlo_opaque(direction, ctx, avals_in, aval_out, x, y) if dtypes.issubdtype(x_dtype, np.inexact): compare_type = "TOTALORDER" if total_order else "FLOAT" elif dtypes.issubdtype(x_dtype, np.signedinteger): compare_type = "SIGNED" else: compare_type = "UNSIGNED" return [mlir.compare_hlo(x, y, direction, compare_type)] eq_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_any, _any], 'eq', allow_extended_dtype=True) ad.defjvp_zero(eq_p) mlir.register_lowering(eq_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "EQ", False)) ne_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_any, _any], 'ne', allow_extended_dtype=True) ad.defjvp_zero(ne_p) mlir.register_lowering(ne_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "NE", False)) ge_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'ge') ad.defjvp_zero(ge_p) mlir.register_lowering(ge_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "GE", False)) gt_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'gt') ad.defjvp_zero(gt_p) mlir.register_lowering(gt_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "GT", False)) le_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'le') ad.defjvp_zero(le_p) mlir.register_lowering(le_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "LE", False)) lt_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'lt') ad.defjvp_zero(lt_p) mlir.register_lowering(lt_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "LT", False)) eq_to_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_any, _any], 'eq_to') ad.defjvp_zero(eq_to_p) mlir.register_lowering(eq_to_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "EQ", True)) le_to_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'le_to') ad.defjvp_zero(le_to_p) mlir.register_lowering(le_to_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "LE", True)) lt_to_p = naryop(_fixed_dtype(np.bool_), [_ordered, _ordered], 'lt_to') ad.defjvp_zero(lt_to_p) mlir.register_lowering(lt_to_p, partial(_compare_lower_hlo, "LT", True)) def _convert_element_type_shape_rule(operand, *, new_dtype, weak_type): return operand.shape def _convert_element_type_dtype_rule(operand, *, new_dtype, weak_type): if (operand.dtype != new_dtype and ((dtypes.issubdtype(operand.dtype, dtypes.extended) and not operand.dtype._rules.convert_from(operand.dtype, new_dtype)) or # type: ignore (dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, dtypes.extended) and not new_dtype._rules.convert_to(operand.dtype, new_dtype)))): # type: ignore raise ValueError( f"Cannot convert_element_type from {dtype_to_string(operand.dtype)} " f"to {dtype_to_string(new_dtype)}") return new_dtype def _convert_element_type_weak_type_rule(operand, *, new_dtype, weak_type): return weak_type def _convert_element_type_transpose_rule(ct, operand, *, new_dtype, weak_type): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) old_dtype = operand.aval.dtype old_weak_type = dtypes.is_weakly_typed(operand) if type(ct) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(operand.aval)] elif core.primal_dtype_to_tangent_dtype(old_dtype) == dtypes.float0: return [ad_util.Zero(operand.aval.update(dtype=dtypes.float0, weak_type=False))] else: return [convert_element_type_p.bind(ct, new_dtype=old_dtype, weak_type=old_weak_type)] def _convert_element_type_jvp_rule(tangent, operand , *, new_dtype, weak_type): if core.primal_dtype_to_tangent_dtype(new_dtype) == dtypes.float0: tangent_aval = core.raise_to_shaped(core.get_aval(tangent)) return ad_util.Zero(tangent_aval.update(dtype=dtypes.float0, weak_type=False)) else: return convert_element_type_p.bind(tangent, new_dtype=new_dtype, weak_type=weak_type) def _convert_elt_type_folding_rule(consts, eqn): # We constant-fold convert_element_types applied to constants if those # constants are Python builtin numeric types or numpy.ndarrays (so as not # to perform any device operations when constant-folding) and if the output # type can be faithfully represented by a Python builtin numeric type or # numpy.ndarray. If those conditions are met, we output a numpy.ndarray # constant if the output type is not weak, and if the output type is weak then # we output a Python builtin numeric type. # TODO(mattjj): allow constant-folding CPU-backed JAX arrays c, = consts o, = eqn.outvars if (type(c) in {np.ndarray, *dtypes.python_scalar_dtypes} and isinstance(o.aval, core.UnshapedArray) and not np.shape(c) and not dtypes.issubdtype(eqn.params['new_dtype'], dtypes.extended)): with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter('ignore', util.NumpyComplexWarning) out = np.array(c).astype(eqn.params['new_dtype']) if not o.aval.weak_type: return [out], None out = out.item() if core.get_aval(out).dtype is o.aval.dtype: return [out], None return [None], eqn def _convert_elt_type_fwd_rule(eqn): v, = eqn.invars if (not dtypes.issubdtype(eqn.params['new_dtype'], dtypes.extended) and not dtypes.issubdtype(v.aval.dtype, dtypes.extended) and v.aval.dtype == eqn.params['new_dtype'] and v.aval.weak_type == eqn.params['weak_type']): return [v], None else: return [None], eqn def _convert_elt_type_pp_rule(eqn, context, settings): # don't print new_dtype because the output binder shows it, don't print # weak_type when false params = dict(eqn.params) del params['new_dtype'] # output binder shows it if not params['weak_type']: del params['weak_type'] # don't show trivial case return core._pp_eqn(eqn.replace(params=params), context, settings) convert_element_type_p = Primitive('convert_element_type') convert_element_type_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, convert_element_type_p)) convert_element_type_p.def_abstract_eval( partial(standard_abstract_eval, convert_element_type_p, _convert_element_type_shape_rule, _convert_element_type_dtype_rule, _convert_element_type_weak_type_rule, standard_named_shape_rule)) ad.defjvp(convert_element_type_p, _convert_element_type_jvp_rule) ad.primitive_transposes[convert_element_type_p] = _convert_element_type_transpose_rule batching.defvectorized(convert_element_type_p) pe.const_fold_rules[convert_element_type_p] = _convert_elt_type_folding_rule pe.forwarding_rules[convert_element_type_p] = _convert_elt_type_fwd_rule pe.def_trivial_padding(convert_element_type_p) # TODO(mattjj): un-comment the next line (see #9456) # core.pp_eqn_rules[convert_element_type_p] = _convert_elt_type_pp_rule def _real_dtype(dtype): return np.finfo(dtype).dtype def _convert_element_type_lower(ctx, operand, *, new_dtype, weak_type): aval_in, = ctx.avals_in aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if (dtypes.issubdtype(aval_in.dtype, np.complexfloating) and not dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, np.complexfloating)): operand = hlo.real(operand) aval_in = aval_in.update(dtype=_real_dtype(aval_in.dtype)) return [mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, operand, aval_in, aval_out)] mlir.register_lowering(convert_element_type_p, _convert_element_type_lower) def _bitcast_convert_type_shape_rule(operand, *, new_dtype): old_dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(operand.dtype) new_dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(new_dtype) if old_dtype.itemsize == new_dtype.itemsize: return operand.shape elif old_dtype.itemsize > new_dtype.itemsize: return (*operand.shape, old_dtype.itemsize // new_dtype.itemsize) else: dim_size = operand.shape[-1] if operand.shape else 1 if dim_size * old_dtype.itemsize != new_dtype.itemsize: raise ValueError( f"Attempting to convert array of shape {operand.shape} " f"from {old_dtype} of size {old_dtype.itemsize} " f"to {new_dtype} of size {new_dtype.itemsize}, " f"but {dim_size} * {old_dtype.itemsize} != {new_dtype.itemsize}") return operand.shape[:-1] def _bitcast_convert_type_dtype_rule(operand, *, new_dtype): old_dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(operand.dtype) new_dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(new_dtype) if (dtypes.issubdtype(old_dtype, np.bool_) or dtypes.issubdtype(old_dtype, np.complexfloating) or dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, np.bool_) or dtypes.issubdtype(new_dtype, np.complexfloating)): if old_dtype != new_dtype: raise TypeError("lax.bitcast_convert_type does not support bool or complex values " "unless the operand and destination types match. " f"Got operand dtype={old_dtype}, {new_dtype=}. " "Consider using the arr.view() method instead.") return new_dtype bitcast_convert_type_p = standard_primitive( _bitcast_convert_type_shape_rule, _bitcast_convert_type_dtype_rule, 'bitcast_convert_type', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) ad.defjvp_zero(bitcast_convert_type_p) batching.defvectorized(bitcast_convert_type_p) def _bitcast_convert_type_lower(ctx, operand, *, new_dtype): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out return [hlo.bitcast_convert(mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval_out), operand)] mlir.register_lowering(bitcast_convert_type_p, _bitcast_convert_type_lower) def _validate_preferred_element_type(input_dtype, preferred_element_type): if (dtypes.issubdtype(input_dtype, np.integer) and dtypes.issubdtype(preferred_element_type, np.floating)): # Special-case integer->float multiply. This is allowed, and also allows # different signedness between input and output. pass else: allowed_types = (np.integer, np.floating, np.complexfloating) if any(dtypes.issubdtype(input_dtype, t) and not dtypes.issubdtype(preferred_element_type, t) for t in allowed_types): raise TypeError("Input type is incompatible with " "`preferred_element_type`. The compatible combinations " "of (input_type, preferred_element_type) are " "(integral, integral), (integral, floating), " "(floating, floating), (complex, complex.") if (dtypes.issubdtype(input_dtype, np.signedinteger) and not dtypes.issubdtype(preferred_element_type, np.signedinteger)): raise TypeError("`preferred_element_type` must have the same signedness " "as the original type.") input_bitwidth = np.dtype(input_dtype).itemsize preferred_bitwidth = np.dtype(preferred_element_type).itemsize if preferred_bitwidth < input_bitwidth: raise TypeError("`preferred_element_type` must not be narrower than the " "original type.") def _dot_general_shape_rule(lhs, rhs, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None): (lhs_contracting, rhs_contracting), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers if not all(np.all(np.greater_equal(d, 0)) and np.all(np.less(d, lhs.ndim)) for d in (lhs_contracting, lhs_batch)): msg = ("dot_general requires lhs dimension numbers to be nonnegative and " "less than the number of axes of the lhs value, got " f"lhs_batch of {lhs_batch} and lhs_contracting of {lhs_contracting} " f"for lhs of rank {lhs.ndim}") raise TypeError(msg) if not all(np.all(np.greater_equal(d, 0)) and np.all(np.less(d, rhs.ndim)) for d in (rhs_contracting, rhs_batch)): msg = ("dot_general requires rhs dimension numbers to be nonnegative and " "less than the number of axes of the rhs value, got " f"rhs_batch of {rhs_batch} and rhs_contracting of {rhs_contracting} " f"for rhs of rank {rhs.ndim}") raise TypeError(msg) if len(lhs_batch) != len(rhs_batch): msg = ("dot_general requires equal numbers of lhs_batch and rhs_batch " "dimensions, got lhs_batch {} and rhs_batch {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(lhs_batch, rhs_batch)) lhs_contracting_set, lhs_batch_set = set(lhs_contracting), set(lhs_batch) rhs_contracting_set, rhs_batch_set = set(rhs_contracting), set(rhs_batch) if len(lhs_batch_set) != len(lhs_batch): msg = ("dot_general requires lhs batch dimensions to be distinct, got " f"lhs_batch {lhs_batch}.") raise TypeError(msg) if len(rhs_batch_set) != len(rhs_batch): msg = ("dot_general requires rhs batch dimensions to be distinct, got " f"rhs_batch {rhs_batch}.") raise TypeError(msg) if len(lhs_contracting_set) != len(lhs_contracting): msg = ("dot_general requires lhs contracting dimensions to be distinct, " f"got lhs_contracting {lhs_contracting}.") raise TypeError(msg) if len(rhs_contracting_set) != len(rhs_contracting): msg = ("dot_general requires rhs contracting dimensions to be distinct, " f"got rhs_contracting {rhs_contracting}.") raise TypeError(msg) if lhs_contracting_set & lhs_batch_set: msg = ("dot_general requires lhs batch dimensions to be disjoint from " "contracting dimensions, got lhs_batch {} and lhs_contracting {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(lhs_batch, lhs_contracting)) if rhs_contracting_set & rhs_batch_set: msg = ("dot_general requires rhs batch dimensions to be disjoint from " "contracting dimensions, got rhs_batch {} and rhs_contracting {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(rhs_batch, rhs_contracting)) lhs_batch_shape = tuple(lhs.shape[i] for i in lhs_batch) rhs_batch_shape = tuple(rhs.shape[i] for i in rhs_batch) if not core.definitely_equal_shape(lhs_batch_shape, rhs_batch_shape): msg = ("dot_general requires lhs batch dimensions and rhs batch dimensions " "to have the same shape, got {} and {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(lhs_batch_shape, rhs_batch_shape)) lhs_contracting_shape = tuple(lhs.shape[i] for i in lhs_contracting) rhs_contracting_shape = tuple(rhs.shape[i] for i in rhs_contracting) if not core.definitely_equal_shape(lhs_contracting_shape, rhs_contracting_shape): msg = ("dot_general requires contracting dimensions to have the same " "shape, got {} and {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(lhs_contracting_shape, rhs_contracting_shape)) return _dot_general_shape_computation(lhs.shape, rhs.shape, dimension_numbers) def _dot_general_shape_computation(lhs_shape, rhs_shape, dimension_numbers): (lhs_contracting, rhs_contracting), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers batch_shape = tuple(lhs_shape[i] for i in lhs_batch) lhs_contract_or_batch = tuple(sorted(tuple(lhs_contracting) + tuple(lhs_batch))) lhs_tensored_shape = tuple_delete(lhs_shape, lhs_contract_or_batch) rhs_contract_or_batch = tuple(sorted(tuple(rhs_contracting) + tuple(rhs_batch))) rhs_tensored_shape = tuple_delete(rhs_shape, rhs_contract_or_batch) return batch_shape + lhs_tensored_shape + rhs_tensored_shape def tuple_delete(tup, idx): idx_ = set(idx) return tuple(tup[i] for i in range(len(tup)) if i not in idx_) def _dot_general_dtype_rule(lhs, rhs, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None): # We're mostly matching XLA's logic here, namely in and # primitive_util.h's HigherPrecisionType, e.g. # def type_properties(dt): c = _real_dtype(dt) if dtypes.issubdtype(dt, np.complexfloating) else dt return (dtypes.issubdtype(dt, np.complexfloating), dtypes.finfo(c).maxexp if dtypes.issubdtype(c, np.floating) else -1, dtypes.finfo(c).nmant if dtypes.issubdtype(c, np.floating) else -1, _bit_width(c), not dtypes.issubdtype(c, np.unsignedinteger)) lhs_prop, rhs_prop = type_properties(lhs.dtype), type_properties(rhs.dtype) if lhs_prop > rhs_prop: result_dtype = lhs.dtype elif rhs_prop > lhs_prop: result_dtype = rhs.dtype else: if lhs.dtype != rhs.dtype: raise TypeError( f"lax.dot_general argument type error: {lhs.dtype}, {rhs.dtype}") result_dtype = lhs.dtype return _maybe_upcast(result_dtype, preferred_element_type) def _bit_width(d): if dtypes.issubdtype(d, np.inexact): return dtypes.finfo(d).bits elif dtypes.issubdtype(d, np.integer): return dtypes.iinfo(d).bits elif d == np.dtype('bool'): return 1 else: assert False, d # should be unreachable, open an issue! def _maybe_upcast(result_dtype, preferred_element_type): # replicates the logic in's MaybeUpcast if (preferred_element_type is None or result_dtype == preferred_element_type): return result_dtype if (not dtypes.issubdtype(result_dtype, np.floating) and _bit_width(preferred_element_type) < _bit_width(result_dtype)): raise TypeError("`preferred_element_type` must not be narrower than the " "original type, got preferred_element_type of " f"{preferred_element_type} for result type of " f"{result_dtype}.") return preferred_element_type def _dot_general_transpose_lhs(g, x, y, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None, swap_ans=False): (x_contract, y_contract), (x_batch, y_batch) = dimension_numbers x_ndim = x.aval.ndim x_kept = remaining(range(x_ndim), x_contract, x_batch) y_kept = remaining(range(np.ndim(y)), y_contract, y_batch) if swap_ans: ans_batch, ans_y, _ = ranges_like(x_batch, y_kept, x_kept) else: ans_batch, _, ans_y = ranges_like(x_batch, x_kept, y_kept) dims = ((ans_y, y_kept), (ans_batch, y_batch)) x_contract_sorted_by_y = list(np.take(x_contract, np.argsort(y_contract))) # type: ignore[arg-type] out_axes = np.argsort(list(x_batch) + x_kept + x_contract_sorted_by_y) x_bar = transpose(dot_general(g, y, dims, precision=precision, preferred_element_type=preferred_element_type), tuple(out_axes)) if x_bar.dtype != x.aval.dtype: x_bar = _convert_element_type(x_bar, x.aval.dtype, x.aval.weak_type) return x_bar def _dot_general_transpose_rhs(g, x, y, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None): (x_contract, y_contract), (x_batch, y_batch) = dimension_numbers swapped_dimension_numbers = ((y_contract, x_contract), (y_batch, x_batch)) y_bar = _dot_general_transpose_lhs( g, y, x, dimension_numbers=swapped_dimension_numbers, precision=precision, preferred_element_type=preferred_element_type, swap_ans=True) if y_bar.dtype != y.aval.dtype: y_bar = _convert_element_type(y_bar, y.aval.dtype, y.aval.weak_type) return y_bar def _dot_general_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: DTypeLike | None): lhs, rhs = batched_args lbd, rbd = batch_dims (lhs_contract, rhs_contract), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers left_stack_dim = lbd.stacked_axis if type(lbd) is RaggedAxis else lbd right_stack_dim = rbd.stacked_axis if type(rbd) is RaggedAxis else rbd new_dimension_numbers, result_stack_dim = _dot_general_batch_dim_nums( (np.ndim(lhs), np.ndim(rhs)), (left_stack_dim, right_stack_dim), dimension_numbers) # TODO Should probably check that any ragged dimensions have corresponding # sizes, because otherwise the dot product is technically undefined. # # This masking is not strictly necessary for non-contraction dimensions; # we could micro-optimize here by avoiding computing that mask. if type(lbd) is RaggedAxis: lhs = batching.mask_ragged_axes(lhs, _get_sum_identity, lbd) lhs_shape = batching.bdim_as_shape(lbd, lhs.shape) else: lhs_shape = np.shape(lhs) if type(rbd) is RaggedAxis: rhs = batching.mask_ragged_axes(rhs, _get_sum_identity, rbd) rhs_shape = batching.bdim_as_shape(rbd, rhs.shape) else: rhs_shape = np.shape(rhs) batched_out = dot_general(lhs, rhs, new_dimension_numbers, precision=precision, preferred_element_type=preferred_element_type) result_batch_dim = batching.shape_as_bdim( result_stack_dim, _dot_general_shape_computation(lhs_shape, rhs_shape, new_dimension_numbers)) return batched_out, result_batch_dim def _dot_general_batch_dim_nums(ndims, batch_dims, dimension_numbers): # There are three kinds of dimensions in a dot_general: # - contraction dimensions appear in lhs and rhs but not the result # - batch dimensions appear in lhs, rhs, and result # - tensor product dimensions appear in the result and one of lhs or rhs # The dimensions of the result are ordered as # - Batch dimensions # - Q: In what order? The order of appearance in lhs, rhs, or # dimension_numbers? # - Tensor dimensions from the LHS # - Tensor dimensions from the RHS lhs_ndim, rhs_ndim = ndims # lbd and rbd are "batch" dimensions in the sense of dimensions being # vmapped, not to be confused with "batch" dimensions in the sense of # explicitly present dimensions that this dot_general is zipping together. lbd, rbd = batch_dims assert lbd is not None or rbd is not None (lhs_contract, rhs_contract), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers def bump_dims(dims, b): return tuple(np.add(dims, np.greater_equal(dims, b))) if type(lbd) is type(rbd) is int: # The vmapped dimensions become an additional batch dimension in the # batched dot_general, which we arbitrarily put first. lhs_batch = (lbd,) + bump_dims(lhs_batch, lbd) rhs_batch = (rbd,) + bump_dims(rhs_batch, rbd) lhs_contract = bump_dims(lhs_contract, lbd) rhs_contract = bump_dims(rhs_contract, rbd) result_batch_dim = 0 elif (type(lbd) is int and rbd is None): # The left vmapped dimension becomes an additional tensor dimension in the # batched dot_general. lhs_tensor = [d for d in range(lhs_ndim) if d not in lhs_batch and d not in lhs_contract] result_batch_dim = len(lhs_batch) + int(sum(np.less(lhs_tensor, lbd))) lhs_batch = bump_dims(lhs_batch, lbd) lhs_contract = bump_dims(lhs_contract, lbd) elif (type(rbd) is int and lbd is None): # The right vmapped dimension becomes an additional tensor dimension in the # batched dot_general. rhs_tensor = [d for d in range(rhs_ndim) if d not in rhs_batch and d not in rhs_contract] result_batch_dim = (lhs_ndim - len(lhs_contract) + int(sum(np.less(rhs_tensor, rbd)))) rhs_batch = bump_dims(rhs_batch, rbd) rhs_contract = bump_dims(rhs_contract, rbd) else: # We wouldn't be here if we didn't have at least one vmapped dimension. assert False new_dimension_numbers = ((lhs_contract, rhs_contract), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch)) return new_dimension_numbers, result_batch_dim def _dot_general_padding_rule(in_avals, out_avals, lhs, rhs, *, dimension_numbers, **params): lhs_aval, _ = in_avals (lhs_contract, _), _ = dimension_numbers padded_axes = [(i, lhs_aval.shape[i].val) for i in lhs_contract if isinstance(lhs_aval.shape[i], pe.BoundedAxisSize)] lhs_ = _replace_masked_values(lhs, 0, padded_axes) return [dot_general(lhs_, rhs, dimension_numbers=dimension_numbers, **params)] def _dot_general_pp_rule(eqn, context, settings) -> pp.Doc: # * suppress printing precision or preferred_element_type when None. # * print dimension_numbers as list-of-lists to be shorter. printed_params = {k: v for k, v in eqn.params.items() if v is not None} (lhs_cont, rhs_cont), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = eqn.params['dimension_numbers'] printed_params['dimension_numbers'] = ( (list(lhs_cont), list(rhs_cont)), (list(lhs_batch), list(rhs_batch))) return core._pp_eqn(eqn.replace(params=printed_params), context, settings) dot_general_p = standard_primitive(_dot_general_shape_rule, _dot_general_dtype_rule, 'dot_general') ad.defbilinear(dot_general_p, _dot_general_transpose_lhs, _dot_general_transpose_rhs) batching.primitive_batchers[dot_general_p] = _dot_general_batch_rule pe.padding_rules[dot_general_p] = _dot_general_padding_rule core.pp_eqn_rules[dot_general_p] = _dot_general_pp_rule def precision_attr(precision: Precision) -> ir.ArrayAttr: if precision is None: full_precision = (Precision.DEFAULT, Precision.DEFAULT) elif not isinstance(precision, tuple): full_precision = (precision, precision) else: full_precision = precision return ir.ArrayAttr.get( [hlo.PrecisionAttr.get(str(p)) for p in full_precision]) def _dot_general_lower(ctx, lhs, rhs, *, dimension_numbers, precision, preferred_element_type: np.dtype | None, platform: str = "default"): del preferred_element_type # Implied by the output aval lhs_aval, rhs_aval = ctx.avals_in lhs_dtype, rhs_dtype = lhs_aval.dtype, rhs_aval.dtype aval_out, = ctx.avals_out (lhs_contracting, rhs_contracting), (lhs_batch, rhs_batch) = dimension_numbers # TODO(b/...): JAX's dot_general primitive accepts the same input dtype # combinations that are accepted in XLA's (the canonical # reference for the HLO type system), but actually different XLA platforms # fail on codegen for different accepted cases. To handle those cases, we # insert ConvertOps on the input, in a platform-dependent way. if lhs_dtype != rhs_dtype: if platform == "tpu": handled = lambda dt: (dtypes.issubdtype(dt, np.floating) or dtypes.issubdtype(dt, np.integer)) if not (handled(lhs_dtype) and handled(rhs_dtype)): lhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, lhs, lhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(lhs_aval.shape, aval_out.dtype)) rhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, rhs, rhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(rhs_aval.shape, aval_out.dtype)) lhs_dtype = rhs_dtype = aval_out.dtype else: # cpu and gpu lhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, lhs, lhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(lhs_aval.shape, aval_out.dtype)) rhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, rhs, rhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(rhs_aval.shape, aval_out.dtype)) lhs_dtype = rhs_dtype = aval_out.dtype # TODO(b/195364460): Work around slow XLA/CPU implementation of float16 matmul if platform == "cpu": if lhs_dtype == np.float16: lhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, lhs, lhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(lhs_aval.shape, np.float32)) if rhs_dtype == np.float16: rhs = mlir.convert_hlo(ctx, rhs, rhs_aval, core.ShapedArray(rhs_aval.shape, np.float32)) dot_dnums = hlo.DotDimensionNumbers.get( lhs_batching_dimensions=list(lhs_batch), rhs_batching_dimensions=list(rhs_batch), lhs_contracting_dimensions=list(lhs_contracting), rhs_contracting_dimensions=list(rhs_contracting)) return [ hlo.dot_general( mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval_out), lhs, rhs, dot_dnums, precision_config=precision_attr(precision)) ] mlir.register_lowering(dot_general_p, _dot_general_lower) for platform in ["cpu", "tpu"]: mlir.register_lowering(dot_general_p, partial(_dot_general_lower, platform=platform), platform=platform) def _broadcast_in_dim_shape_rule(operand, *, shape, broadcast_dimensions): _check_shapelike('broadcast_in_dim', 'shape', shape) _check_shapelike('broadcast_in_dim', 'broadcast_dimensions', broadcast_dimensions) operand_ndim = np.ndim(operand) if operand_ndim != len(broadcast_dimensions): msg = ('broadcast_in_dim broadcast_dimensions must have length equal to ' 'operand ndim; got broadcast_dimensions {} for operand ndim {}.') raise TypeError(msg.format(broadcast_dimensions, operand_ndim)) if len(shape) < operand_ndim: msg = ('broadcast_in_dim target broadcast shape must have equal or higher rank ' 'to the operand shape; got operand ndim {} and target broadcast ndim {}.') raise TypeError(msg.format(operand_ndim, len(shape))) if not set(broadcast_dimensions).issubset(set(range(len(shape)))): msg = ('broadcast_in_dim broadcast_dimensions must be a subset of output ' 'dimensions, got {} for operand ndim {} and shape {}.') raise TypeError(msg.format(broadcast_dimensions, operand_ndim, shape)) if not all(core.definitely_equal_one_of_dim(operand.shape[i], [1, shape[broadcast_dimensions[i]]]) for i in range(operand_ndim)): msg = ( "broadcast_in_dim operand dimension sizes must either be 1, or be " "equal to their corresponding dimensions in the target broadcast " "shape; got operand of shape {}, target broadcast shape {}, " "broadcast_dimensions {} ") raise TypeError(msg.format( tuple(core.replace_tracer_for_error_message(d) for d in operand.shape), shape, broadcast_dimensions)) if (len(broadcast_dimensions) != len(set(broadcast_dimensions)) or tuple(broadcast_dimensions) != tuple(sorted(broadcast_dimensions))): msg = ("broadcast_in_dim broadcast_dimensions must be strictly increasing; " "got broadcast_dimensions {}") raise TypeError(msg.format(broadcast_dimensions)) return shape def _broadcast_in_dim_typecheck_rule( _, operand, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions): if not dyn_shape: out_aval, effects = broadcast_in_dim_p.abstract_eval( operand.aval, shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions) return [out_aval], effects else: # TODO(mattjj): perform more checks like _broadcast_in_dim_shape_rule out_shape = _merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape) out_shape = [x.val if type(x) is core.Literal else x for x in out_shape] # pytype: disable=attribute-error out_aval = core.DShapedArray(tuple(out_shape), operand.aval.dtype, operand.aval.weak_type) return [out_aval], core.no_effects def _broadcast_in_dim_transpose_rule(ct, operand, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions): if type(ct) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(operand.aval)] unit_dims = [i for i, s in enumerate(operand.aval.shape) if core.definitely_equal(s, 1)] bdims = tuple(np.delete(broadcast_dimensions, unit_dims)) axes = tuple(np.delete(range(len(shape)), bdims)) return ([expand_dims(_reduce_sum(ct, axes), unit_dims)] + [None] * len(dyn_shape)) def _broadcast_in_dim_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, shape, broadcast_dimensions): # `dyn_shape` is the dynamic portion of the target shape. `shape` # is the target shape, with `None` for dynamic sections. # broadcast_dimensions gives indices where dimensions of the input # have to go: dimension i of the input becomes dimension # broadcast_dimensions[i] of the output. operand, *dyn_shape = batched_args operand_bdim, *dyn_shape_bdims = batch_dims stacked_size = None if operand_bdim is not None: if isinstance(operand_bdim, RaggedAxis): stacked_axis = operand_bdim.stacked_axis else: stacked_axis = operand_bdim new_operand = batching.moveaxis(operand, stacked_axis, 0) if isinstance(operand_bdim, RaggedAxis): stacked_size = operand_bdim.size else: stacked_size = operand.shape[stacked_axis] new_broadcast_dimensions = (0,) + tuple(np.add(1, broadcast_dimensions)) else: new_operand = operand new_broadcast_dimensions = tuple(np.add(1, broadcast_dimensions)) # TODO(mattjj,axch) This section assumes that the shape of the operand is # broadcast-compatible with the requested shape. We should tweak vmap to run # the abstract_eval rule so this can be checked while the raggedness # information is available. dyn_limits = [] out_ragged_sizes = [] for sizes, bdim in zip(dyn_shape, dyn_shape_bdims): if bdim is None: # TODO(mattjj,axch) Is this what bdim == None means? assert isinstance(sizes, int) bound = sizes else: bound = sizes.dtype.bound out_ragged_sizes.append(sizes) if stacked_size is None: stacked_size = len(sizes) else: msg = "All segments lengths arrays must be the same length" assert len(sizes) == stacked_size, msg dyn_limits.append(bound) new_shape = (stacked_size,) + _merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_limits) result = broadcast_in_dim(new_operand, new_shape, new_broadcast_dimensions) out_ragged_axes = [idx+1 for idx, s in enumerate(shape) if s is None] out_bdim = batching.make_batch_axis( result.ndim, 0, zip(out_ragged_axes, out_ragged_sizes)) return result, out_bdim def _broadcast_in_dim_fwd_rule(eqn): v, *dyn = eqn.invars if not dyn and core.definitely_equal_shape(eqn.params['shape'], v.aval.shape): return [v], None else: return [None], eqn def _broadcast_in_dim_staging_rule( trace, x, *dyn, shape, broadcast_dimensions): params = dict(shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions) if not dyn: return trace.default_process_primitive(broadcast_in_dim_p, (x,), params) aval = core.DShapedArray(_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn), x.dtype, x.weak_type) return _dyn_shape_staging_rule(trace, broadcast_in_dim_p, aval, x, *dyn, **params) def _broadcast_in_dim_padding_rule(in_avals, out_avals, x, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions): del in_avals, dyn_shape out_aval, = out_avals new_shape = [] new_dyn_shape = [] for d in out_aval.shape: if type(d) is pe.BoundedAxisSize: new_shape.append(d.bound) elif type(d) is int: new_shape.append(d) else: assert isinstance(d, core.Tracer) new_shape.append(None) new_dyn_shape.append(d) return [broadcast_in_dim_p.bind(x, *new_dyn_shape, shape=tuple(new_shape), broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions)] def _broadcast_in_dim_jvp_rule(primals, tangents, *, shape, broadcast_dimensions): operand, *dyn_shape = primals operand_dot, *_ = tangents y = broadcast_in_dim_p.bind(operand, *dyn_shape, shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions) if type(operand_dot) is ad_util.Zero: y_dot = ad_util.Zero.from_value(y) else: y_dot = broadcast_in_dim_p.bind(operand_dot, *dyn_shape, shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions) return y, y_dot def _broadcast_in_dim_partial_eval( trace, operand, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions): if not dyn_shape: return trace.default_process_primitive( broadcast_in_dim_p, (operand, *dyn_shape), dict(shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions)) assert all(t.pval.is_known() for t in dyn_shape) operand_tracer = trace.instantiate_const(operand) dyn_shape_tracers = map(trace.instantiate_const, dyn_shape) dyn_shape_tracers_ = iter(dyn_shape_tracers) shape_ = [next(dyn_shape_tracers_) if d is None else d for d in shape] out_aval = core.DShapedArray(tuple(shape_), operand.dtype, operand.weak_type) out_tracer = pe.JaxprTracer(trace, pe.PartialVal.unknown(out_aval), None) eqn = pe.new_eqn_recipe( [operand_tracer, *dyn_shape_tracers], [out_tracer], broadcast_in_dim_p, dict(shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions), core.no_effects, source_info_util.current()) out_tracer.recipe = eqn return out_tracer def _broadcast_in_dim_lower(ctx, x, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions) -> Sequence[ir.Value]: aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if dyn_shape: aval_out = aval_out.update(shape=_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape)) return [mlir.broadcast_in_dim(ctx, x, aval_out, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions)] def _broadcast_in_dim_pp_rule(eqn, context, settings): # Don't print shape or trivial broadcast_dimensions in params, since it can be # inferred from the let-binder's type annotation. printed_params = {} if eqn.params['broadcast_dimensions']: printed_params['broadcast_dimensions'] = eqn.params['broadcast_dimensions'] new_eqn = eqn.replpace(params=printed_params, invars=eqn.invars[:1]) return core._pp_eqn(new_eqn, context, settings) def _broadcast_in_dim_abstract_eval(x, *dyn_shape, shape, broadcast_dimensions): if (not dyn_shape and not any(isinstance(d, core.DArray) and type(core.get_aval(d).dtype) is core.bint for d in shape)): shape = _broadcast_in_dim_shape_rule( # error checking x, shape=shape, broadcast_dimensions=broadcast_dimensions) return core.ShapedArray(shape, x.dtype, x.weak_type, x.named_shape) # If any BInts in shape, or Tracers in dyn_shape, produce a DShapedArray # (even if x is a ShapedArray) # TODO(mattjj): unify DShapedArray with ShapedArray, and remove this code return core.DShapedArray(_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape), x.dtype, x.weak_type) broadcast_in_dim_p = standard_primitive( _broadcast_in_dim_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'broadcast_in_dim') broadcast_in_dim_p.def_abstract_eval(_broadcast_in_dim_abstract_eval) ad.primitive_jvps[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_jvp_rule ad.primitive_transposes[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_transpose_rule batching.primitive_batchers[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_batch_rule pe.forwarding_rules[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_fwd_rule pe.custom_partial_eval_rules[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_partial_eval pe.custom_staging_rules[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_staging_rule pe.padding_rules[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_padding_rule core.custom_typechecks[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_typecheck_rule mlir.register_lowering(broadcast_in_dim_p, _broadcast_in_dim_lower) # TODO(mattjj): un-comment the next line # core.pp_eqn_rules[broadcast_in_dim_p] = _broadcast_in_dim_pp_rule def _clamp_shape_rule(min, operand, max): if min.shape and min.shape != operand.shape: raise TypeError("clamp requires min.shape == operand.shape or min.shape == " f"(), got min.shape={min.shape}, {operand.shape=}.") if max.shape and max.shape != operand.shape: raise TypeError("clamp requires max.shape == operand.shape or max.shape == " f"(), got max.shape={max.shape}, {operand.shape=}.") return operand.shape _clamp_dtype_rule = partial(naryop_dtype_rule, _input_dtype, [_any, _any, _any], 'clamp') def _clamp_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, **params): min, x, max = batched_args min_bdim, x_bdim, max_bdim = batch_dims size = next(x.shape[i] for x, i in zip(batched_args, batch_dims) if i is not None) # avoid transposes and some broadcasts in special cases if min_bdim == x_bdim == max_bdim: if np.shape(min) == np.shape(x) == np.shape(max): return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max), x_bdim elif np.ndim(min) == np.ndim(max) == 0: return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max), x_bdim elif np.ndim(min) == np.ndim(max) == 1: min = broadcast_in_dim(min, x.shape, [min_bdim]) max = broadcast_in_dim(max, x.shape, [max_bdim]) return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max), x_bdim elif np.ndim(min) == 0 and np.ndim(max) == 0 and x_bdim is not None: return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max), x_bdim min = batching.bdim_at_front(min, min_bdim, size) if np.shape(min) else min max = batching.bdim_at_front(max, max_bdim, size) if np.shape(max) else max x = batching.bdim_at_front(x, x_bdim, size) if np.shape(x) else x if np.ndim(min) == 0 and np.ndim(x) > 0: min = broadcast(min, x.shape) if np.ndim(max) == 0 and np.ndim(x) > 0: max = broadcast(max, x.shape) if 0 < np.ndim(min) < np.ndim(x): assert np.ndim(min) == 1, np.ndim(min) min = broadcast_in_dim(min, x.shape, [0]) if 0 < np.ndim(max) < np.ndim(x): assert np.ndim(max) == 1, np.ndim(max) max = broadcast_in_dim(max, x.shape, [0]) if np.ndim(min) > np.ndim(x): assert np.ndim(x) == 0, np.ndim(x) x = broadcast(x, min.shape) return clamp_p.bind(min, x, max), 0 clamp_p = standard_primitive(_clamp_shape_rule, _clamp_dtype_rule, 'clamp') ad.defjvp(clamp_p, lambda g, min, operand, max: select(bitwise_and(gt(min, operand), lt(min, max)), g, _zeros(operand)), lambda g, min, operand, max: select(bitwise_and(gt(operand, min), lt(operand, max)), g, _zeros(operand)), lambda g, min, operand, max: select(lt(max, operand), g, _zeros(operand))) batching.primitive_batchers[clamp_p] = _clamp_batch_rule mlir.register_lowering(clamp_p, partial(_nary_lower_hlo, hlo.clamp)) pe.def_trivial_padding(clamp_p) def _concatenate_shape_rule(*operands, **kwargs): dimension = kwargs.pop('dimension') if not operands: msg = "concatenate expects at least one operand, got 0." raise TypeError(msg) if not all(isinstance(operand, UnshapedArray) for operand in operands): msg = "All objects to concatenate must be arrays, got {}." op = next(op for op in operands if not isinstance(op, UnshapedArray)) raise TypeError(msg.format(type(op))) if len({operand.ndim for operand in operands}) != 1: msg = "Cannot concatenate arrays with different numbers of dimensions: got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(", ".join(str(o.shape) for o in operands))) if not 0 <= dimension < operands[0].ndim: msg = "concatenate dimension out of bounds: dimension {} for shapes {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(dimension, ", ".join([str(o.shape) for o in operands]))) shapes = [operand.shape[:dimension] + operand.shape[dimension+1:] for operand in operands] if not shapes[:-1] == shapes[1:]: msg = ("Cannot concatenate arrays with shapes that differ in dimensions " "other than the one being concatenated: concatenating along " "dimension {} for shapes {}.") shapes = [operand.shape for operand in operands] raise TypeError(msg.format(dimension, ", ".join(map(str, shapes)))) concat_size = sum(o.shape[dimension] for o in operands) ex_shape = operands[0].shape return ex_shape[:dimension] + (concat_size,) + ex_shape[dimension+1:] def _concatenate_dtype_rule(*operands, **kwargs): check_same_dtypes('concatenate', *operands) return operands[0].dtype def _concatenate_transpose_rule(t, *operands, dimension): operand_shapes = [o.aval.shape if ad.is_undefined_primal(o) else o.shape for o in operands] if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [ad_util.Zero(o.aval) if ad.is_undefined_primal(o) else None for o in operands] else: limit_points = np.cumsum( [shape[dimension] for shape in operand_shapes]).tolist() starts = np.zeros((len(operands), t.ndim), dtype=int).tolist() limits = np.tile(t.shape, (len(operands), 1)).tolist() for i, s in enumerate(starts[1:]): s[dimension] = limit_points[:-1][i] for i, l in enumerate(limits): l[dimension] = limit_points[i] return [slicing.slice(t, start, limit) if ad.is_undefined_primal(o) else None for o, start, limit in zip(operands, starts, limits)] def _concatenate_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, dimension): size = next(op.shape[bdim] for op, bdim in zip(batched_args, batch_dims) if bdim is not None) operands = [batching.moveaxis(op, bdim, 0) if bdim is not None else broadcast(op, (size,)) for op, bdim in zip(batched_args, batch_dims)] return concatenate(operands, dimension + 1), 0 def _concatenate_pad_rule(in_avals, out_avals, *operands, dimension): if all(isinstance(a.shape[dimension], (int, np.integer)) for a in in_avals): return [concatenate(operands, dimension)] else: raise NotImplementedError # TODO(mattjj) concatenate_p = standard_primitive( _concatenate_shape_rule, _concatenate_dtype_rule, 'concatenate') ad.deflinear2(concatenate_p, _concatenate_transpose_rule) ad.primitive_transposes[concatenate_p] = _concatenate_transpose_rule batching.primitive_batchers[concatenate_p] = _concatenate_batch_rule pe.padding_rules[concatenate_p] = _concatenate_pad_rule def _concatenate_lower(ctx, *xs, dimension): return [hlo.concatenate(xs, mlir.i64_attr(dimension))] mlir.register_lowering(concatenate_p, _concatenate_lower) def _pad_dtype_rule(operand, padding_value, *, padding_config): if operand.dtype != padding_value.dtype: msg = "pad operand and padding_value must be same dtype: got {} and {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(operand.dtype, padding_value.dtype)) return _input_dtype(operand, padding_value) def _pad_shape_rule(operand, padding_value, *, padding_config): del padding_value op_shape = np.shape(operand) if not len(padding_config) == np.ndim(operand): raise ValueError("length of padding_config must equal the number of axes " f"of operand, got padding_config {padding_config} " f"for operand shape {op_shape}") if not all(i >= 0 for _, _, i in padding_config): raise ValueError("interior padding in padding_config must be nonnegative, " f"got padding_config {padding_config}") result = tuple(l + h + core.dilate_dim(d, i + 1) for (l, h, i), d in zip(padding_config, op_shape)) if not all(d >= 0 for d in result): msg = (f"Dimension size after padding is not at least 0, " f"got result shape {result}, for padding_config {padding_config}" f" and operand shape {op_shape}") raise ValueError(msg) return result def _pad_transpose(t, operand, padding_value, *, padding_config): if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: t_operand = ad_util.Zero(operand.aval) if ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) else None t_padv = ad_util.Zero(padding_value.aval) if ad.is_undefined_primal(padding_value) else None else: lo, hi, interior = util.unzip3(padding_config) total = lambda x: _reduce_sum(x, list(range(t.ndim))) def t_op(): unpad_config = safe_zip(np.negative(lo), np.negative(hi), np.zeros_like(interior)) unpadded = pad(t, np.array(0., t.dtype), unpad_config) return slicing.slice(unpadded, np.zeros_like(lo), unpadded.shape, np.add(interior, 1)) t_operand = t_op() if ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) else None t_padv = sub(total(t), total(t_operand)) if ad.is_undefined_primal(padding_value) else None return [t_operand, t_padv] def _pad_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, padding_config): operand, padding_value = batched_args operand_bdim, padding_value_bdim = batch_dims if operand_bdim is None: operand_bdim = 0 operand = broadcast(operand, (padding_value.shape[padding_value_bdim],)) padding_config = list(padding_config) padding_config.insert(operand_bdim, (0, 0, 0)) if padding_value_bdim is None: return pad(operand, padding_value, padding_config), operand_bdim assert padding_value_bdim == 0, padding_value_bdim x = pad(operand, _zero(operand), padding_config) mask = pad(full_like(operand, True, np.bool_), False, padding_config) broadcasted_padding = broadcast_in_dim(padding_value, x.shape, (operand_bdim,)) return select(mask, x, broadcasted_padding), operand_bdim pad_p = standard_primitive(_pad_shape_rule, _pad_dtype_rule, 'pad') ad.deflinear2(pad_p, _pad_transpose) batching.primitive_batchers[pad_p] = _pad_batch_rule def _pad_lower(ctx, x, padding_value, *, padding_config): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out low, high, interior = util.unzip3(padding_config) return [mlir.pad(ctx, aval_out, x, padding_value, low, high, interior)] mlir.register_lowering(pad_p, _pad_lower) # The squeeze primitive exists for the benefit of masking and other # transformations that need to keep track of axis identity. # For example, consider reshaping a 2D array with shape (1, N) into a 1D array # with shape (N,). This results in the following JAXpr: # reshape[ dimension=None new_sizes=(N,) ] # For N > 1, we can match up the output array axis with the second axis of the # input. But for N = 1, it is not clear how axes match up: all we know from the # JAXpr is that we are reshaping from (1, 1) to (1,). # In contrast, squeeze[ dimensions=(0,) ] is unambiguous. def _squeeze_dtype_rule(operand, *, dimensions): return operand.dtype def _squeeze_shape_rule(operand, *, dimensions): return _compute_squeeze_shape(np.shape(operand), dimensions) def _compute_squeeze_shape(shape, dimensions): dims_set = set(dimensions) if len(dims_set) != len(dimensions): raise ValueError(f"dimensions are not unique: {dimensions}") if not all(0 <= d < len(shape) for d in dims_set): raise ValueError(f"dimensions outside range [0, ndim): {dimensions}") if any(not core.definitely_equal(shape[d], 1) for d in dimensions): raise ValueError( "cannot select an axis to squeeze out which has size not equal to " f"one, got {shape=} and {dimensions=}") return tuple(s for i, s in enumerate(shape) if i not in dims_set) def _squeeze_transpose_rule(t, operand, *, dimensions): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) return [expand_dims(t, dimensions)] def _squeeze_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, dimensions): operand, = batched_args bdim, = batch_dims operand, bdim = batching.move_stacked_axis(operand, bdim, 0) dimensions = tuple(np.add(1, dimensions)) out_stack_dim = bdim.stacked_axis if isinstance(bdim, RaggedAxis) else bdim bdim_out = batching.shape_as_bdim( out_stack_dim, _compute_squeeze_shape(batching.bdim_as_shape(bdim, operand.shape), dimensions)) return squeeze(operand, dimensions=dimensions), bdim_out squeeze_p = standard_primitive(_squeeze_shape_rule, _squeeze_dtype_rule, 'squeeze') ad.deflinear2(squeeze_p, _squeeze_transpose_rule) batching.primitive_batchers[squeeze_p] = _squeeze_batch_rule pe.def_trivial_padding(squeeze_p) def _squeeze_lower(ctx, operand, *, dimensions): del dimensions # Implied by the output aval. return [mlir.reshape(ctx, operand, ctx.avals_out[0])] mlir.register_lowering(squeeze_p, _squeeze_lower) def shape_as_value(shape: core.Shape): """Converts a shape that may contain Poly values into a JAX value.""" if len(shape) == 0: return full((0,), np.array(0, np.int64)) dims = [ expand_dims(convert_element_type(core.dimension_as_value(d), np.int64), (0,)) for d in shape ] return concatenate(dims, dimension=0) def _reshape_shape_rule(operand, *, new_sizes, dimensions): if not all(d >= 0 for d in new_sizes): msg = 'reshape new_sizes must all be positive, got {}.' raise TypeError(msg.format(new_sizes)) # TODO(necula): re-enable this check operand_size = new_size = if (not config.dynamic_shapes.value and not operand_size == new_size): msg = (f"reshape total size must be unchanged, got new_sizes {new_sizes} " f"(of total size {new_size}) for shape {np.shape(operand)} " f"(of total size {operand_size}).") raise TypeError(msg) if dimensions is not None: if set(dimensions) != set(range(np.ndim(operand))): msg = ('reshape dimensions must be a permutation of operand dimensions, ' 'got dimensions {} for shape {}.') raise TypeError(msg.format(dimensions, np.shape(operand))) return tuple(new_sizes) def _reshape_typecheck_rule(_, operand, *dyn_shape, new_sizes, dimensions): if not dyn_shape: out_aval, effects = reshape_p.abstract_eval( operand.aval, new_sizes=new_sizes, dimensions=dimensions) return [out_aval], effects else: # TODO(mattjj, necula): perform more checks like _reshape_shape_rule out_shape = _merge_dyn_shape(new_sizes, dyn_shape) out_shape = [x.val if type(x) is core.Literal else x for x in out_shape] # pytype: disable=attribute-error out_aval = core.DShapedArray(tuple(out_shape), operand.aval.dtype, operand.aval.weak_type) return [out_aval], core.no_effects def _reshape_dtype_rule(operand, *, new_sizes, dimensions): return operand.dtype def _reshape_transpose_rule(t, operand, *, new_sizes, dimensions): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) if dimensions is None: return [reshape(t, operand.aval.shape)] else: return [transpose(reshape(t, np.take(operand.aval.shape, dimensions)), np.argsort(dimensions))] def _reshape_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, new_sizes, dimensions): operand, = batched_args bdim, = batch_dims operand = batching.moveaxis(operand, bdim, 0) if dimensions is not None: dimensions = (0,) + tuple(np.add(1, dimensions)) return reshape(operand, operand.shape[:1] + new_sizes, dimensions), 0 def _reshape_lower(ctx, x, *dyn_shape, new_sizes, dimensions): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if dimensions is not None: x = hlo.transpose(x, mlir.dense_int_array(dimensions)) if dyn_shape: aval_out = aval_out.update(shape=_merge_dyn_shape(new_sizes, dyn_shape)) return [mlir.reshape(ctx, x, aval_out)] def _reshape_staging_rule( trace, x, *dyn, new_sizes, dimensions): params = dict(new_sizes=new_sizes, dimensions=dimensions) if not dyn: return trace.default_process_primitive(reshape_p, (x,), params) av = core.DShapedArray(_merge_dyn_shape(new_sizes, dyn), x.dtype, x.weak_type) return _dyn_shape_staging_rule(trace, reshape_p, av, x, *dyn, **params) reshape_p = standard_primitive(_reshape_shape_rule, _reshape_dtype_rule, 'reshape') ad.deflinear2(reshape_p, _reshape_transpose_rule) batching.primitive_batchers[reshape_p] = _reshape_batch_rule mlir.register_lowering(reshape_p, _reshape_lower) core.custom_typechecks[reshape_p] = _reshape_typecheck_rule pe.custom_staging_rules[reshape_p] = _reshape_staging_rule def _rev_shape_rule(operand, *, dimensions): _check_shapelike('rev', 'dimensions', dimensions) if len(set(dimensions)) != len(dimensions): msg = 'rev dimensions must be unique, got {}.' raise TypeError(msg.format(dimensions)) if dimensions and not _max(dimensions) < operand.ndim: msg = ('rev dimensions must all be less than operand ndim, got dimensions ' '{} for operand ndim {}.') raise TypeError(msg.format(dimensions, operand.ndim)) return operand.shape def _rev_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, dimensions): operand, = batched_args bdim, = batch_dims new_dimensions = [i + 1 if i >= bdim else i for i in dimensions] return rev(operand, new_dimensions), bdim rev_p = standard_primitive(_rev_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'rev') ad.deflinear2(rev_p, lambda t, _, dimensions: [rev(t, dimensions)]) batching.primitive_batchers[rev_p] = _rev_batch_rule def _rev_lower(ctx, x, *, dimensions): return [hlo.reverse(x, mlir.dense_int_array(dimensions))] mlir.register_lowering(rev_p, _rev_lower) def _transpose_shape_rule(operand, *, permutation): if not isinstance(permutation, (tuple, list, np.ndarray)): msg = "transpose permutation must be a tuple/list/ndarray, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(type(permutation))) if tuple(sorted(permutation)) != tuple(range(operand.ndim)): msg = ("transpose permutation isn't a permutation of operand dimensions, " "got permutation {} for operand shape {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(permutation, operand.shape)) return tuple(operand.shape[old_idx] for old_idx in permutation) def _transpose_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, permutation): operand, = batched_args bdim, = batch_dims stack_dim = bdim.stacked_axis if isinstance(bdim, RaggedAxis) else bdim perm = (stack_dim,) + tuple(i if i < stack_dim else i+1 for i in permutation) if isinstance(bdim, RaggedAxis): res_bdim = batching.transpose_ragged_axes(bdim.move_stacked_axis(0), perm) else: res_bdim = 0 return transpose(operand, perm), res_bdim def _transpose_lower(ctx, x, *, permutation): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if dtypes.issubdtype(aval_out.dtype, dtypes.extended): elt_shape = aval_out.dtype._rules.physical_element_aval( aval_out.dtype).shape trailing_dims = [aval_out.ndim + i for i in range(len(elt_shape))] permutation = [*permutation, *trailing_dims] return [hlo.transpose(x, mlir.dense_int_array(permutation))] transpose_p = standard_primitive(_transpose_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'transpose') ad.deflinear2(transpose_p, lambda t, _, permutation: [transpose(t, np.argsort(permutation))]) # type: ignore[arg-type] batching.primitive_batchers[transpose_p] = _transpose_batch_rule mlir.register_lowering(transpose_p, _transpose_lower) pe.def_trivial_padding(transpose_p) def _select_shape_rule(which, *cases): if len(cases) == 0: raise TypeError("select must have at least one case") if any(case.shape != cases[0].shape for case in cases[1:]): msg = "select cases must have the same shapes, got [{}]." raise TypeError(msg.format(", ".join([str(c.shape) for c in cases]))) if which.shape and which.shape != cases[0].shape: msg = ("select `which` must be scalar or have the same shape as cases, " "got `which` shape {} but case shape {}.") raise TypeError(msg.format(which.shape, cases[0].shape)) return cases[0].shape def _select_dtype_rule(which, *cases): check_same_dtypes("select", *cases) if (not dtypes.issubdtype(which.dtype, np.bool_) and not dtypes.issubdtype(which.dtype, np.integer)): raise TypeError("select `which` must be boolean or integer type, got " f"{which.dtype}.") if dtypes.issubdtype(which.dtype, np.bool_) and len(cases) > 2: raise TypeError("select with boolean `which` cannot have > 2 cases.") return cases[0].dtype def _select_weak_type_rule(which, *cases): return all(c.weak_type for c in cases) def _select_transpose_rule(t, which, *cases): assert not ad.is_undefined_primal(which) if type(t) is ad_util.Zero: return [None] + [ad_util.Zero(c.aval) if ad.is_undefined_primal(c) else None for c in cases] else: zeros = full_like(t, 0) if dtypes.dtype(which) == np.dtype(np.bool_): ct0 = select(which, zeros, t) if ad.is_undefined_primal(cases[0]) else None ct1 = select(which, t, zeros) if ad.is_undefined_primal(cases[1]) else None return (None, ct0, ct1) else: return [None] + [ select(eq(which, _const(which, i)), t, zeros) if ad.is_undefined_primal(case) else None for i, case in enumerate(cases) ] def _select_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, **unused_kwargs): which, *cases = batched_args which_bdim, *case_bdims = batch_dims size = next(x.shape[i] for x, i in zip(batched_args, batch_dims) if i is not None) # avoid transposes and some broadcasts in special cases if all(which_bdim == bdim for bdim in case_bdims): if np.shape(which) == np.shape(cases[0]): return select_n(which, *cases), which_bdim else: # vmapped function had a scalar which with nonscalar args assert np.ndim(which) == 1 which = broadcast_in_dim(which, cases[0].shape, [which_bdim]) return select_n(which, *cases), which_bdim elif np.ndim(which) == 0 and all(bdim is not None for bdim in case_bdims): if all(case_bdims[0] == bdim for bdim in case_bdims[1:]): return select_n(which, *cases), case_bdims[0] elif all(np.shape(cases[0]) == np.shape(c) for c in cases): bdim = case_bdims[0] other_cases = [batching.moveaxis(c, c_bdim, bdim) for c, c_bdim in zip(cases[1:], case_bdims[1:])] return select_n(which, cases[0], *other_cases), bdim which = (batching.bdim_at_front(which, which_bdim, size) if np.shape(which) else which) if not all(() == np.shape(c) for c in cases): cases = [batching.bdim_at_front(c, bdim, size) for c, bdim in zip(cases, case_bdims)] assert all(np.shape(cases[0]) == np.shape(c) for c in cases[1:]) if 0 < np.ndim(which) < np.ndim(cases[0]): # vmapped function had a scalar which with nonscalar args assert np.ndim(which) == 1 which = broadcast_in_dim(which, cases[0].shape, [0]) if np.ndim(which) > np.ndim(cases[0]): assert np.ndim(cases[0]) == 0 cases = [broadcast(c, which.shape) for c in cases] return select_n(which, *cases), 0 def _select_jvp(primals, tangents): which, *case_primals = primals case_tangents = tangents[1:] out = select_n(which, *case_primals) if all(type(t) is ad_util.Zero for t in case_tangents): out_dot = ad_util.Zero(case_tangents[0].aval) else: z = _zeros(next(t for t in case_tangents if type(t) is not ad_util.Zero)) case_tangents = [z if type(t) is ad_util.Zero else t for t in case_tangents] out_dot = select_n(which, *case_tangents) return out, out_dot def _select_hlo_lowering_opaque(ctx, which, *cases): avals_in = ctx.avals_in aval_out, = ctx.avals_out assert all(aval_case == aval_out for aval_case in avals_in[1:]) select_lower = _select_hlo_lowering physical_aval_out = core.physical_aval(aval_out) physical_avals_cases = [physical_aval_out] * (len(avals_in) - 1) aval_which = avals_in[0] aval_which_bcast = physical_aval_out.update(dtype=aval_which.dtype) assert aval_which_bcast.shape[:aval_which.ndim] == aval_which.shape bcast_dims = list(range(aval_which.ndim)) which_bcast = mlir.broadcast_in_dim( ctx, which, aval_which_bcast, broadcast_dimensions=bcast_dims) return mlir.delegate_lowering( ctx, select_lower, which_bcast, *cases, avals_in=[aval_which_bcast, *physical_avals_cases], avals_out=[physical_aval_out])[0] def _select_hlo_lowering(ctx, which, *cases): which_aval = ctx.avals_in[0] aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if dtypes.issubdtype(aval_out.dtype, dtypes.extended): return [_select_hlo_lowering_opaque(ctx, which, *cases)] if which_aval.dtype == np.dtype(np.bool_): assert len(cases) <= 2 if len(cases) == 1: return cases return [, cases[1], cases[0])] if dtypes.issubdtype(which_aval.dtype, np.signedinteger): compare_type = 'SIGNED' else: compare_type = 'UNSIGNED' lt = 'LT' def _select(offset, cases): assert len(cases) > 0 if len(cases) == 1: return cases[0] mid = len(cases) // 2 pred = mlir.compare_hlo(which, mlir.full_like_aval(ctx, offset + mid, which_aval), lt, compare_type) return, _select(offset, cases[:mid]), _select(offset + mid, cases[mid:])) return [_select(0, cases)] select_n_p = standard_primitive( _select_shape_rule, _select_dtype_rule, 'select_n', weak_type_rule=_select_weak_type_rule) ad.primitive_jvps[select_n_p] = _select_jvp ad.primitive_transposes[select_n_p] = _select_transpose_rule batching.primitive_batchers[select_n_p] = _select_batch_rule mlir.register_lowering(select_n_p, _select_hlo_lowering) pe.def_trivial_padding(select_n_p) def _reduce_shape_rule(*avals, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): operand_avals, init_val_avals = split_list(avals, [len(avals) // 2]) if any(arg.shape != () for arg in init_val_avals): init_val_shapes = [a.shape for a in init_val_avals] raise ValueError(f'reduce found non-scalar initial value: {init_val_shapes}') return [tuple(np.delete(op.shape, dimensions)) for op in operand_avals] def _reduce_dtype_rule(*avals, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): operand_avals, init_val_avals = split_list(avals, [len(avals) // 2]) operand_dtypes = [dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(op.dtype) for op in operand_avals] init_val_dtypes = [dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(init.dtype) for init in init_val_avals] if operand_dtypes != init_val_dtypes: raise TypeError( "reduce operand dtypes should match corresponding initial value dtypes, " f"got operands={operand_avals} and initial_values={init_val_avals}") return operand_dtypes def _reduce_weak_type_rule(*avals, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): operand_avals, init_val_avals = split_list(avals, [len(avals) // 2]) return [op.weak_type and init_val.weak_type for op, init_val in safe_zip(operand_avals, init_val_avals)] def _reduce_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): # TODO(mattjj,frostig): use batch_jaxpr, delete computation (assumes poly??) num_operands = len(batched_args) // 2 operands, init_values = split_list(batched_args, [num_operands]) operand_bdims, init_value_bdims = split_list(batch_dims, [num_operands]) if all(init_value_bdim is batching.not_mapped for init_value_bdim in init_value_bdims): size = next(x.shape[ax] for x, ax in zip(batched_args, batch_dims) if ax is not None) operands = [batching.bdim_at_front(arg, bdim, size) for arg, bdim in zip(operands, operand_bdims)] new_dimensions = [d + 1 for d in dimensions] new_operand_bdims = [0] * num_operands return reduce_p.bind(*(operands + init_values), computation=computation, dimensions=tuple(new_dimensions), jaxpr=jaxpr), new_operand_bdims else: raise NotImplementedError # loop and stack def _reduce_jvp(reducer, init_values, primals, tangents, axes): input_shape = np.array(primals[0].shape, dtype=int) n =[list(axes)]) non_axes = np.delete(np.arange(len(input_shape)), axes) # Move the reduced axes to the front, and flatten them to 1D. permutation = axes + tuple(non_axes) new_shape = (n,) + tuple(input_shape[non_axes]) primals = tuple(reshape(x, new_shape, permutation) for x in primals) tangents = tuple(reshape(t, new_shape, permutation) for t in tangents) for d in range(len(non_axes) + 1): reducer = api.vmap(reducer) def _reduce_tree(*xs, axis=0): """Reduce by repeatedly splitting the array and multiplying.""" while xs[0].shape[axis] > 1: n = xs[0].shape[axis] n1 = (n + 1) // 2 n2 = n - n1 xs1 = [slicing.slice_in_dim(x, 0, n1) for x in xs] xs2 = [slicing.slice_in_dim(x, n1, None) for x in xs] if n2 != n1: paddings = [(0, 0, 0)] * len(xs[0].shape) paddings[axis] = (0, 1, 0) xs2 = [pad(x2, i, paddings) for x2, i in zip(xs2, init_values)] xs = reducer(*(xs1 + xs2)) if xs[0].shape[axis] == 0: return [full(input_shape[non_axes], i) for i in init_values] return tuple(squeeze(x, (axis,)) for x in xs) return api.jvp(_reduce_tree, primals, tangents) def _reduce_jvp_rule(primals, tangents, *, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): primal_xs, init_values = split_list(primals, [len(primals) // 2]) tangent_xs, tangent_init = split_list(tangents, [len(tangents) // 2]) # This test may be too strict, if a value is actually zero but we cannot prove # it is symbolically zero. if any(type(t) is not ad_util.Zero for t in tangent_init): raise NotImplementedError( "Gradient of general lax.reduce with non-zero tangents for " "initial values to reduction not implemented") reducer = core.jaxpr_as_fun(jaxpr) return _reduce_jvp(reducer, init_values, primal_xs, tangent_xs, dimensions) def _reduce_named_shape_rule(*avals, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): # TODO(mattjj,frostig): see the TODOs noting limitations/assumptions in # _reduce_batching_rule. We're making the same assumptions here for now. num_operands = len(avals) // 2 operand_avals, init_avals = split_list(avals, [num_operands]) if any(a.named_shape for a in init_avals): raise NotImplementedError named_shapes = [a.named_shape for a in operand_avals] join = core.join_named_shapes(*(a.named_shape for a in operand_avals)) return [join] * len(named_shapes) reduce_p = core.Primitive('reduce') reduce_p.multiple_results = True reduce_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, reduce_p)) reduce_p.def_abstract_eval( partial(standard_multi_result_abstract_eval, reduce_p, _reduce_shape_rule, _reduce_dtype_rule, _reduce_weak_type_rule, _reduce_named_shape_rule)) batching.primitive_batchers[reduce_p] = _reduce_batch_rule ad.primitive_jvps[reduce_p] = _reduce_jvp_rule def _reduce_lower(ctx, *values, computation, jaxpr, dimensions): assert all(isinstance(x, core.ShapedArray) for x in ctx.avals_in), ctx.avals_in operands, init_values = util.split_list(values, [len(values) // 2]) init_value_avals = ctx.avals_in[len(values) // 2:] op = hlo.ReduceOp([mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval) for aval in ctx.avals_out], operands, init_values, mlir.dense_int_array_v6(dimensions)) ir_types = [mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval) for aval in init_value_avals] reducer = op.regions[0].blocks.append(*(ir_types + ir_types)) with ir.InsertionPoint(reducer): name_stack = source_info_util.new_name_stack() if jaxpr.effects: raise NotImplementedError('Cannot lower effectful `reduce`.') out_nodes, _ = mlir.jaxpr_subcomp(ctx.module_context, jaxpr.jaxpr, name_stack, mlir.TokenSet(), jaxpr.consts, *([a] for a in reducer.arguments), dim_var_values=ctx.dim_var_values) hlo.return_(util.flatten(out_nodes)) return op.results mlir.register_lowering(reduce_p, _reduce_lower) def _reduce_number_dtype_rule(name, operand, *args, **kw): if not dtypes.issubdtype(operand.dtype, np.number): raise TypeError("{} does not accept dtype {}. Accepted dtypes are subtypes " "of number.".format(name, dtype_to_string(operand.dtype))) return dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(operand.dtype) def _reduce_sum_shape_rule(operand, *, axes): return _reduce_op_shape_rule(operand, axes=axes) def _reduce_sum_transpose_rule(cotangent, operand, *, axes): assert ad.is_undefined_primal(operand) input_shape = operand.aval.shape broadcast_dimensions = tuple(np.delete(np.arange(len(input_shape)), axes)) result = broadcast_in_dim(cotangent, input_shape, broadcast_dimensions) assert result.shape == input_shape return [result] def _reducer_padding(traceable, ident, in_avals, out_avals, operand, *, axes): del out_avals aval, = in_avals padded_axes = [(i, d.val) for i, d in enumerate(aval.shape) if isinstance(d, pe.BoundedAxisSize)] operand_ = _replace_masked_values(operand, ident(aval.dtype), padded_axes) return [traceable(operand_, axes)] def _replace_masked_values(x, val, padded_axes): if not padded_axes: return x dtype = dtypes._scalar_type_to_dtype(int) masks = [broadcasted_iota(dtype, x.shape, i) < d for i, d in padded_axes] return select(_reduce(operator.and_, masks), x, full_like(x, val)) reduce_sum_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_sum_shape_rule, partial(_reduce_number_dtype_rule, 'reduce_sum'), 'reduce_sum') ad.deflinear2(reduce_sum_p, _reduce_sum_transpose_rule) batching.defreducer(reduce_sum_p, _get_sum_identity) pe.padding_rules[reduce_sum_p] = partial(_reducer_padding, _reduce_sum, _get_sum_identity) def _reduce_op_shape_rule(operand, *, axes, input_shape=None): del input_shape # Unused. if len(axes) != len(set(axes)): raise ValueError(f"duplicate value in 'axes' of reduction: {axes}") if not all(0 <= a < operand.ndim for a in axes): raise ValueError(f"reduction axes {axes} contains out-of-bounds indices for {operand}.") axes = frozenset(axes) return tuple(d for i, d in enumerate(operand.shape) if i not in axes) def _reduce_prod_jvp_rule(primals, tangents, *, axes): reducer = lambda x, y: [mul(x, y)] primals_out, tangents_out = _reduce_jvp(reducer, [_const(primals[0], 1)], primals, tangents, axes) return primals_out[0], tangents_out[0] reduce_prod_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_op_shape_rule, partial(_reduce_number_dtype_rule, 'reduce_prod'), 'reduce_prod') ad.primitive_jvps[reduce_prod_p] = _reduce_prod_jvp_rule batching.defreducer(reduce_prod_p, _get_prod_identity) pe.padding_rules[reduce_prod_p] = partial(_reducer_padding, _reduce_prod, _get_prod_identity) def _reduce_chooser_shape_rule(operand, *, axes): return tuple(np.delete(operand.shape, axes)) def _reduce_chooser_jvp_rule(g, ans, operand, *, axes): # TODO(mattjj): an alternative is to use variadic reduce to compute the chosen # locations in a single pass (rather than comparing equality) and use a # gather, and/or even push along the chosen elements of g (b/112040122) shape = [1 if i in axes else d for i, d in enumerate(operand.shape)] location_indicators = convert_element_type( _eq_meet(operand, reshape(ans, shape)), g.dtype) counts = _reduce_sum(location_indicators, axes) return div(_reduce_sum(mul(g, location_indicators), axes), counts) reduce_max_p = standard_primitive(_reduce_op_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'reduce_max') ad.defjvp2(reduce_max_p, _reduce_chooser_jvp_rule) batching.defreducer(reduce_max_p, _get_max_identity) pe.padding_rules[reduce_max_p] = partial(_reducer_padding, _reduce_max, _get_max_identity) reduce_min_p = standard_primitive(_reduce_op_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'reduce_min') ad.defjvp2(reduce_min_p, _reduce_chooser_jvp_rule) batching.defreducer(reduce_min_p, _get_min_identity) pe.padding_rules[reduce_min_p] = partial(_reducer_padding, _reduce_min, _get_min_identity) def _argminmax_shape_rule(operand, *, axes, index_dtype): axis, = axes if not (0 <= axis < len(operand.shape)): raise ValueError(f"Invalid axis {axis} for operand shape {operand.shape}") if operand.shape[axis] < 1: raise ValueError("argmin and argmax require non-empty reduced dimension. " f"operand.shape={operand.shape} {axis=}") return tuple(np.delete(operand.shape, axis)) def _argminmax_dtype_rule(operand, *, axes, index_dtype): if not dtypes.issubdtype(index_dtype, np.integer): raise TypeError("index_dtype must be an integer type, but got {}" .format(dtype_to_string(index_dtype))) return index_dtype class _ArgMinMaxReducer: def __init__(self, value_comparator): self._value_comparator = value_comparator def __repr__(self): # Override the repr so that the metadata attached to the lowered op does not # contain unstable function ids. This plays more nicely with computation # fingerprint calculation in the compilation cache. return f'_ArgMinMaxReducer({self._value_comparator.__name__})' def __call__(self, op_val_index, acc_val_index): op_val, op_index = op_val_index acc_val, acc_index = acc_val_index # Pick op_val if Lt (for argmin) or if NaN pick_op_val = bitwise_or(self._value_comparator(op_val, acc_val), ne(op_val, op_val)) # If x and y are not NaN and x = y, then pick the first pick_op_index = bitwise_or(pick_op_val, bitwise_and(eq(op_val, acc_val), lt(op_index, acc_index))) return (select(pick_op_val, op_val, acc_val), select(pick_op_index, op_index, acc_index)) def _compute_argminmax(value_comparator, get_identity, operand, *, index_dtype, axes): # value_comparator is either (for argmin) or # get_identity(operand.dtype) is inf for argmin or -inf for argmax axis, = axes indices = broadcasted_iota(index_dtype, np.shape(operand), axis) res = reduce([operand, indices], [get_identity(operand.dtype), np.array(0, index_dtype)], _ArgMinMaxReducer(value_comparator), axes) return res[1] argmin_p = standard_primitive(_argminmax_shape_rule, _argminmax_dtype_rule, 'argmin', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) batching.defreducer(argmin_p, _get_min_identity) ad.defjvp_zero(argmin_p) argmax_p = standard_primitive(_argminmax_shape_rule, _argminmax_dtype_rule, 'argmax', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) batching.defreducer(argmax_p, _get_max_identity) ad.defjvp_zero(argmax_p) mlir.register_lowering(argmin_p, mlir.cache_lowering(mlir.lower_fun( partial(_compute_argminmax, lt, _get_min_identity), multiple_results=False))) mlir.register_lowering(argmax_p, mlir.cache_lowering(mlir.lower_fun( partial(_compute_argminmax, gt, _get_max_identity), multiple_results=False))) def _reduce_logical_shape_rule(operand, *, axes): if operand.dtype != np.bool_ and not np.issubdtype(operand.dtype, np.integer): raise TypeError(f"logical reduction requires operand dtype bool or int, got {operand.dtype}.") return tuple(np.delete(operand.shape, axes)) reduce_or_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_logical_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'reduce_or', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) batching.defreducer(reduce_or_p, _get_bitwise_or_identity) reduce_and_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_logical_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'reduce_and', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) batching.defreducer(reduce_and_p, _get_bitwise_and_identity) reduce_xor_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_logical_shape_rule, _input_dtype, 'reduce_xor', weak_type_rule=_strip_weak_type) batching.defreducer(reduce_xor_p, _get_bitwise_or_identity) def _unary_reduce_lower(reducer, unit_factory, ctx, x, *, axes): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out dtype = aval_out.dtype op = hlo.ReduceOp([mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval_out)], [x], mlir.ir_constants(unit_factory(aval_out.dtype)), mlir.dense_int_array_v6(axes)) scalar_type = mlir.aval_to_ir_type(core.ShapedArray((), dtype)) reducer_region = op.regions[0].blocks.append(scalar_type, scalar_type) with ir.InsertionPoint(reducer_region): hlo.return_([reducer(*reducer_region.arguments)]) return op.results mlir.register_lowering(reduce_sum_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, hlo.AddOp, _get_sum_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_prod_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, hlo.MulOp, _get_prod_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_or_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, hlo.OrOp, _get_bitwise_or_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_and_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, hlo.AndOp, _get_bitwise_and_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_xor_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, hlo.XorOp, _get_bitwise_or_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_min_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, mlir.min_hlo, _get_min_identity)) mlir.register_lowering(reduce_max_p, partial(_unary_reduce_lower, mlir.max_hlo, _get_max_identity)) def _reduce_precision_shape_rule(operand, *, exponent_bits, mantissa_bits): exponent_bits = operator.index(exponent_bits) mantissa_bits = operator.index(mantissa_bits) if exponent_bits < 1: raise ValueError(f"reduce_precision: exponent_bits must be positive; got {exponent_bits}") if mantissa_bits < 0: raise ValueError(f"reduce_precision: mantissa_bits must be non-negative; got {mantissa_bits}") return operand.shape reduce_precision_p = standard_primitive( _reduce_precision_shape_rule, partial(unop_dtype_rule, _identity, _float, 'reduce_precision'), name='reduce_precision') ad.deflinear(reduce_precision_p, lambda t, **kwargs: [reduce_precision_p.bind(t, **kwargs)]) batching.defvectorized(reduce_precision_p) def _reduce_precision_lower(ctx, operand, *, exponent_bits, mantissa_bits): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out return [hlo.reduce_precision(operand, mlir.i32_attr(exponent_bits), mlir.i32_attr(mantissa_bits))] mlir.register_lowering(reduce_precision_p, _reduce_precision_lower) _UINT_DTYPES = { 16: np.dtype(np.uint16), 32: np.dtype(np.uint32), 64: np.dtype(np.uint64), } _INT_DTYPES = { 16: np.dtype(np.int16), 32: np.dtype(np.int32), 64: np.dtype(np.int64), } def _sort_abstract_eval(*args, **kwargs): args = tuple(raise_to_shaped(arg) for arg in args) if any(arg.shape != args[0].shape for arg in args[1:]): shapes = " ".join(str(a.shape) for a in args) raise TypeError(f"Arguments to sort must have equal shapes, got: {shapes}") return args def _canonicalize_float_for_sort(x): # In the sort comparator, we are going to use a comparision operator where -0 # would be before 0, and -NaN and NaN appear at the beginning and end of the # ordering. In this scheme, -0 would be before 0, and -NaN and NaN appear at # the beginning and end of the ordering. This causes issues for stable # sorts, so we avoid this by standardizing the representation of zeros # and NaNs in the output. result = select(eq(x, _zero(x)), _zeros(x), x) with jax.debug_nans(False): result = select(_isnan(x), full_like(result, np.nan), result) return result # Default comparator that sorts the operands lexicographically on the # first `num_keys` arguments. # For floating point types, a total order is created where # -infinity < ... < 0 < ... < infinity < NaN. # 0.0 and -0.0 are treated as equivalent, as are all NaN representations. # For complex types, the (real, imag) pairs are sorted lexicographically # (following NumPy's semantics). # This code adds complex-number support and lexicographic ordering to the algorithm from: # def _sort_lt_comparator(*operands, num_keys=1): x_keys, y_keys = _operands_to_keys(*operands, num_keys=num_keys) p = None for xk, yk in zip(x_keys[::-1], y_keys[::-1]): p = (bitwise_or(lt_to_p.bind(xk, yk), bitwise_and(eq_to_p.bind(xk, yk), p)) if p is not None else lt_to_p.bind(xk, yk)) return p # Similar to sort_lt_comparator, but implements less than or equal. Used by # the searchsorted() implementation. def _sort_le_comparator(*operands, num_keys=1): x_keys, y_keys = _operands_to_keys(*operands, num_keys=num_keys) p = None for xk, yk in zip(x_keys[::-1], y_keys[::-1]): p = (bitwise_or(lt_to_p.bind(xk, yk), bitwise_and(eq_to_p.bind(xk, yk), p)) if p is not None else le_to_p.bind(xk, yk)) return p def _operands_to_keys(*operands, num_keys=1): assert len(operands) >= 2 and len(operands) % 2 == 0, operands assert len(operands) // 2 >= num_keys, (operands, num_keys) x_keys, y_keys = [], [] for x, y in zip(operands[:2*num_keys:2], operands[1:2*num_keys:2]): assert x.dtype == y.dtype, (x.dtype, y.dtype) if dtypes.issubdtype(x.dtype, np.complexfloating): x_keys.extend([_canonicalize_float_for_sort(real(x)), _canonicalize_float_for_sort(imag(x))]) y_keys.extend([_canonicalize_float_for_sort(real(y)), _canonicalize_float_for_sort(imag(y))]) elif dtypes.issubdtype(x.dtype, np.floating): x_keys.append(_canonicalize_float_for_sort(x)) y_keys.append(_canonicalize_float_for_sort(y)) else: x_keys.append(x) y_keys.append(y) return x_keys, y_keys def _sort_jvp(primals, tangents, *, dimension, is_stable, num_keys): shape = primals[0].shape iotas = [] for dim, size in enumerate(shape): dtype = np.int32 if size < np.iinfo(np.int32).max else np.int64 iotas.append(broadcasted_iota(dtype, shape, dim)) primals = sort_p.bind(*(primals + (iotas[dimension],)), dimension=dimension, is_stable=is_stable, num_keys=num_keys) idx = tuple(primals[-1] if i == dimension else iotas[i] for i in range(len(shape))) tangents_out = tuple(t if type(t) is ad_util.Zero else t[idx] for t in tangents) return tuple(primals[:-1]), tangents_out def _sort_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, dimension, is_stable, num_keys): prototype_arg, new_bdim = next( (a, b) for a, b in zip(batched_args, batch_dims) if b is not None) new_args = [] for arg, bdim in zip(batched_args, batch_dims): if bdim is None: dims = np.delete(np.arange(prototype_arg.ndim), new_bdim) new_args.append(broadcast_in_dim(arg, prototype_arg.shape, dims)) else: new_args.append(batching.moveaxis(arg, bdim, new_bdim)) new_dimension = dimension + (new_bdim <= dimension) bdims = (new_bdim,) * len(new_args) return (sort_p.bind(*new_args, dimension=new_dimension, is_stable=is_stable, num_keys=num_keys), bdims) sort_p = Primitive('sort') sort_p.multiple_results = True sort_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, sort_p)) sort_p.def_abstract_eval(_sort_abstract_eval) ad.primitive_jvps[sort_p] = _sort_jvp batching.primitive_batchers[sort_p] = _sort_batch_rule def _sort_lower(ctx, *operands, dimension, is_stable, num_keys): assert all(isinstance(x, core.ShapedArray) for x in ctx.avals_in), ctx.avals_in sort = hlo.SortOp([mlir.aval_to_ir_type(aval) for aval in ctx.avals_out], mlir.flatten_lowering_ir_args(operands), dimension=mlir.i64_attr(dimension), is_stable=ir.BoolAttr.get(is_stable)) scalar_avals = [aval.update(shape=()) for aval in ctx.avals_in] scalar_types = safe_map(mlir.aval_to_ir_type, scalar_avals) comparator = sort.comparator.blocks.append( *util.flatten(zip(scalar_types, scalar_types))) with ir.InsertionPoint(comparator): lower_comparator = mlir.lower_fun(partial(_sort_lt_comparator), multiple_results=False) sub_ctx = ctx.replace(primitive=None, avals_in=util.flatten(zip(scalar_avals, scalar_avals)), avals_out=[core.ShapedArray((), np.bool_)]) out = lower_comparator(sub_ctx, *[[a] for a in comparator.arguments], num_keys=num_keys) hlo.return_(util.flatten(out)) return sort.results mlir.register_lowering(sort_p, _sort_lower) def _top_k_abstract_eval(operand, *, k): if dtypes.issubdtype(operand.dtype, np.complexfloating): raise ValueError("top_k is not compatible with complex inputs.") if k < 0: raise ValueError(f"k argument to top_k must be nonnegative, got {k}") if len(operand.shape) == 0: raise TypeError("top_k operand must have >= 1 dimension, got {}" .format(operand.shape)) shape = list(operand.shape) if shape[-1] < k: msg = "k argument to top_k must be no larger than minor dimension; {} vs {}" raise ValueError(msg.format(k, shape)) shape[-1] = k return (operand.update(shape=shape, dtype=operand.dtype, weak_type=operand.weak_type), operand.update(shape=shape, dtype=np.dtype(np.int32))) def _top_k_jvp(primals, tangents, *, k): operand, = primals tangent, = tangents primals_out = top_k(operand, k) if type(tangent) is ad_util.Zero: tangent_out = ad_util.Zero.from_value(primals_out[0]) else: _, k_idxs = primals_out idx_shape = k_idxs.shape rank = len(idx_shape) gather_index_shape = idx_shape + (1,) gather_indices = [] for i in range(rank-1): _iota = iota(k_idxs.dtype, idx_shape[i]) _iota = broadcast_in_dim(_iota, gather_index_shape, (i,)) gather_indices.append(_iota) gather_indices.append(reshape(k_idxs, gather_index_shape)) gather_indices = concatenate(gather_indices, dimension=rank) slice_sizes = (1,) * rank dnums = slicing.GatherDimensionNumbers( offset_dims=(), collapsed_slice_dims=tuple(range(rank)), start_index_map=tuple(range(rank))) tangent_out = slicing.gather(tangent, gather_indices, dnums, slice_sizes) return primals_out, (tangent_out, ad_util.Zero.from_value(primals_out[1])) def _top_k_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims, *, k): operand, = batched_args bdim, = batch_dims if bdim == operand.ndim-1: perm = np.arange(operand.ndim) perm[bdim-1], perm[bdim] = perm[bdim], perm[bdim-1] top_k_v, top_k_i = top_k(transpose(operand, perm), k=k) return (transpose(top_k_v, perm), transpose(top_k_i, perm)), (bdim, bdim) else: return top_k(operand, k=k), (bdim, bdim) top_k_p = Primitive('top_k') top_k_p.multiple_results = True top_k_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, top_k_p)) top_k_p.def_abstract_eval(_top_k_abstract_eval) def _top_k_lower(ctx, operand, k): if core.is_constant_dim(k): return chlo.TopKOp(operand, mlir.i64_attr(k)).results k_value, = mlir.eval_dynamic_shape_as_vals(ctx, (k,)) out_values_aval, out_indices_aval, = ctx.avals_out return mlir.custom_call( "stablehlo.dynamic_top_k", result_types=[mlir.aval_to_ir_type(out_values_aval), mlir.aval_to_ir_type(out_indices_aval)], operands=[operand, k_value]).results mlir.register_lowering(top_k_p, _top_k_lower) ad.primitive_jvps[top_k_p] = _top_k_jvp batching.primitive_batchers[top_k_p] = _top_k_batch_rule def _stop_gradient_jvp_rule(primals, tangents): # if we don't call stop_gradient here, we'd only peel off one autodiff tracer x, = primals return stop_gradient(x), ad_util.Zero.from_value(x) def _stop_gradient_batch_rule(batched_args, batch_dims): x, = batched_args dim, = batch_dims return stop_gradient(x), dim ad.primitive_jvps[ad_util.stop_gradient_p] = _stop_gradient_jvp_rule batching.primitive_batchers[ad_util.stop_gradient_p] = _stop_gradient_batch_rule pe.def_trivial_padding(ad_util.stop_gradient_p) def create_token(_=None): """Creates an XLA token value with no preconditions for sequencing effects. Experimental. The argument is ignored. It exists for backward compatibility. """ return create_token_p.bind() create_token_p = Primitive("create_token") create_token_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, create_token_p)) create_token_p.def_abstract_eval(lambda *_: abstract_token) def _create_token_lowering(ctx, *operands): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out return [hlo.create_token()] mlir.register_lowering(create_token_p, _create_token_lowering)
[docs] def after_all(*operands): """Merges one or more XLA token values. Experimental. Wraps the XLA AfterAll operator.""" return after_all_p.bind(*operands)
def _after_all_abstract_eval(*operands): if any(x is not abstract_token for x in operands): raise TypeError("Arguments to after_all must be tokens") return abstract_token after_all_p = Primitive("after_all") after_all_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, after_all_p)) after_all_p.def_abstract_eval(_after_all_abstract_eval) def _after_all_lowering(ctx, *operands): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out return [hlo.after_all(operands)] mlir.register_lowering(after_all_p, _after_all_lowering) class InOutFeedEffect(effects.Effect): pass infeed_effect = InOutFeedEffect() outfeed_effect = InOutFeedEffect() def infeed(token, shape=None, partitions=None): """Consumes an infeed value of `shape` from the host. Experimental. `token` is used to sequence infeed and outfeed effects. `partitions` may be specified inside a `sharded_jit` function. """ flat_shapes, treedef = tree_util.tree_flatten(shape) for shape in flat_shapes: if not isinstance(shape, ShapedArray): raise TypeError("shape argument to infeed must be a pytree of " "ShapedArray values, got {}".format(shape)) if partitions is not None: # Always replicate token. # We specifically use type() to raise an error for PartitionSpecs. if type(partitions) != tuple: # pylint: disable=unidiomatic-typecheck raise ValueError(f"'partitions' argument to infeed should be a tuple, " f"got {partitions}") partitions = partitions + (None,) xs_and_token = infeed_p.bind(token, shapes=tuple(flat_shapes), partitions=partitions) return (treedef.unflatten(xs_and_token[:-1]), xs_and_token[-1]) def _infeed_abstract_eval(token, *, shapes, partitions): if token is not abstract_token: raise TypeError("First argument to infeed must be a token") return (*shapes, abstract_token), {infeed_effect} infeed_p = Primitive("infeed") infeed_p.multiple_results = True infeed_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, infeed_p)) infeed_p.def_effectful_abstract_eval(_infeed_abstract_eval) mlir.lowerable_effects.add_type(InOutFeedEffect) def _infeed_lowering(ctx, token, *, shapes, partitions): output_types = safe_map(mlir.aval_to_ir_types, ctx.avals_out[:-1]) flat_output_types = util.flatten(output_types) # TODO(phawkins): verify `shapes` have a major-to-minor layout. layouts = ir.ArrayAttr.get([ ir.ArrayAttr.get( [mlir.i64_attr(i) for i in range(len(aval.shape) - 1, -1, -1)]) for aval in shapes ]) infeed = hlo.InfeedOp( flat_output_types + [hlo.TokenType.get()], token, infeed_config=ir.StringAttr.get(''), layout=layouts) if partitions is not None: mlir.set_sharding(infeed, xla.sharding_to_proto(partitions)) token = infeed.results[-1] outs = infeed.results[:-1] return util.unflatten(outs, safe_map(len, output_types)) + [[ token, ]] mlir.register_lowering(infeed_p, _infeed_lowering) def outfeed(token, xs, partitions = None): """Outfeeds value `xs` to the host. Experimental. `token` is used to sequence infeed and outfeed effects. `partitions` may be specified inside a `sharded_jit` or `pjit` function. """ if partitions is not None: # We specifically use type() to raise an error for PartitionSpecs. if type(partitions) != tuple: # pylint: disable=unidiomatic-typecheck raise ValueError(f"'partitions' argument to outfeed should be a tuple, " f"got {partitions}") flat_xs, _ = tree_util.tree_flatten(xs) return outfeed_p.bind(token, *flat_xs, partitions=partitions) def _outfeed_abstract_eval(token, *xs, partitions): if token is not abstract_token: raise TypeError("First argument to outfeed must be a token") return abstract_token, {outfeed_effect} outfeed_p = Primitive("outfeed") outfeed_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, outfeed_p)) outfeed_p.def_effectful_abstract_eval(_outfeed_abstract_eval) mlir.lowerable_effects.add_type(InOutFeedEffect) def _outfeed_lowering(ctx, token, *xs, partitions): outfeed = hlo.OutfeedOp( mlir.flatten_lowering_ir_args(xs), token, outfeed_config=ir.StringAttr.get('')) if partitions is not None: mlir.set_sharding(outfeed, xla.sharding_to_proto(partitions)) return outfeed.results mlir.register_lowering(outfeed_p, _outfeed_lowering)
[docs] def rng_uniform(a, b, shape): """Stateful PRNG generator. Experimental and its use is discouraged. Returns uniformly distributed random numbers in the range [a, b). If b <= a, then the result is undefined, and different implementations may return different results. You should use jax.random for most purposes; this function exists only for niche use cases with special performance requirements. This API may be removed at any time. """ return rng_uniform_p.bind(a, b, shape=tuple(shape))
def _rng_uniform_abstract_eval(a, b, *, shape): if a.dtype != b.dtype: raise ValueError( "Arguments to rng_uniform must have identical dtypes, got {} " "and {}.".format(a.dtype, b.dtype)) if a.shape != () or b.shape != (): raise ValueError( "Arguments to rng_uniform must be scalars; got shapes {} and {}." .format(a.shape, b.shape)) return a.update(shape=shape, dtype=a.dtype, weak_type=(a.weak_type and b.weak_type)) rng_uniform_p = Primitive("rng_uniform") rng_uniform_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, rng_uniform_p)) rng_uniform_p.def_abstract_eval(_rng_uniform_abstract_eval) def _rng_uniform_lowering(ctx, a, b, *, shape): aval_out, = ctx.avals_out shape, = mlir.ir_constants(np.array(aval_out.shape, np.int64)) return [hlo.rng(a, b, shape, hlo.RngDistributionAttr.get('UNIFORM'))] mlir.register_lowering(rng_uniform_p, _rng_uniform_lowering) def _rng_bit_generator_shape_rule(key, *, shape, dtype, algorithm): del dtype, algorithm return (key.shape, tuple(shape)) def _rng_bit_generator_dtype_rule(key, *, shape, dtype, algorithm): del shape, algorithm return (key.dtype, dtype) def _rng_bit_generator_weak_type_rule(key, *, shape, dtype, algorithm): del shape, dtype, algorithm return (key.weak_type, False) RandomAlgorithm = xops.RandomAlgorithm RandomAlgorithm.__str__ = lambda algorithm: # type: ignore[assignment] def _rng_algorithm(algorithm: RandomAlgorithm): if algorithm == RandomAlgorithm.RNG_THREE_FRY: return hlo.RngAlgorithmAttr.get("THREE_FRY") elif algorithm == RandomAlgorithm.RNG_PHILOX: return hlo.RngAlgorithmAttr.get("PHILOX") elif algorithm == RandomAlgorithm.RNG_DEFAULT: return hlo.RngAlgorithmAttr.get("DEFAULT") else: assert False def _rng_bit_generator_lowering( ctx, key, *, shape, dtype, algorithm): key_type = ir.RankedTensorType(key.type) key_shape, key_etype = key_type.shape, key_type.element_type # While the RngBitGenerator HLO accepts a u64[2] key on all backends, we # typically represent the key argument to this primitive as a u32[4] so as to # sidestep issues with the jax_enable_x64=False configuration. As a result, we # need to convert u32[4] -> u64[2] here in the translation rule. However, we # also polymorphically allow a u64[2] for backward compatibility. # # Separately, xops.RngBitGenerator doesn't support generating u8 or # u16, so we request u32 and truncate in that case. u32_type = ir.IntegerType.get_unsigned(32) u64_type = ir.IntegerType.get_unsigned(64) assert ((key_shape == [4] and key_etype == u32_type) or (key_shape == [2] and key_etype == u64_type)), (key_shape, key_etype) dtype = np.dtype(dtype) etype = mlir.dtype_to_ir_type(dtype) if dtype in (np.dtype('uint8'), np.dtype('uint16'), np.dtype('uint32'), np.dtype('uint64')): rbg_etype = etype rbg_dtype = dtype else: rbg_etype = u32_type rbg_dtype = np.uint32 if key_etype == u32_type: key = hlo.bitcast_convert( ir.RankedTensorType.get([2], u64_type), hlo.reshape(ir.RankedTensorType.get([2, 2], u32_type), key)) algorithm_attr = _rng_algorithm(algorithm) _, out_vals_aval = ctx.avals_out if any(not core.is_constant_shape(a.shape) for a in ctx.avals_out): output_shape = mlir.shape_tensor( mlir.eval_dynamic_shape(ctx, out_vals_aval.shape)) out_key, out_vals = mlir.custom_call( "stablehlo.dynamic_rng_bit_generator", result_types=[key.type, mlir.aval_to_ir_type(core.ShapedArray(shape, rbg_dtype))], operands=[key, output_shape], extra_attributes=dict(rng_algorithm=algorithm_attr)).results else: out_key, out_vals = hlo.RngBitGeneratorOp( key.type, ir.RankedTensorType.get(shape, rbg_etype), algorithm_attr, key).results if key_etype == u32_type: out_key = hlo.reshape( ir.RankedTensorType.get([4], u32_type), hlo.bitcast_convert( ir.RankedTensorType.get([2, 2], u32_type), out_key)) if rbg_etype != etype: out_vals = hlo.convert( ir.RankedTensorType.get(ir.RankedTensorType(out_vals.type).shape, etype), out_vals) return [out_key, out_vals] def _rng_bit_generator_named_shape_rule(key, *, shape, dtype, algorithm): return [key.named_shape, key.named_shape] rng_bit_generator_p = Primitive("rng_bit_generator") rng_bit_generator_p.multiple_results = True rng_bit_generator_p.def_impl( partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, rng_bit_generator_p)) rng_bit_generator_p.def_abstract_eval( partial(standard_multi_result_abstract_eval, rng_bit_generator_p, _rng_bit_generator_shape_rule, _rng_bit_generator_dtype_rule, _rng_bit_generator_weak_type_rule, _rng_bit_generator_named_shape_rule)) mlir.register_lowering(rng_bit_generator_p, _rng_bit_generator_lowering) def _array_copy(arr: ArrayLike) -> Array: return copy_p.bind(arr) def _which_dim_sharded(s: PmapSharding) -> int | None: sharded_dim = None for i, s in enumerate(s.sharding_spec.sharding): if isinstance(s, (pxla.Unstacked, pxla.Chunked)): sharded_dim = i break return sharded_dim def _identity_fn(x): return x def _copy_impl_pmap_sharding(sharded_dim, *args, **kwargs): axis_name, static_broadcasted_tuple, donate_tuple = api._shared_code_pmap( _identity_fn, None, (), (), sharded_dim, sharded_dim) p = api._prepare_pmap( _identity_fn, sharded_dim, sharded_dim, static_broadcasted_tuple, donate_tuple, None, None, None, args, kwargs) out_flat = pxla.xla_pmap_impl( p.flat_fun, *p.flat_args, backend=None, axis_name=axis_name, axis_size=p.local_axis_size, global_axis_size=p.global_axis_size, devices=p.devices, in_axes=p.in_axes_flat, out_axes_thunk=p.out_axes_thunk, name=p.flat_fun.__name__, donated_invars=p.donated_invars, is_explicit_global_axis_size=p.is_explicit_global_axis_size, ) return tree_util.tree_unflatten(p.out_tree(), out_flat) # TODO( Look into making this a # method on jax.Array so that we can bypass the XLA compilation here. def _copy_impl(prim, *args, **kwargs): a, = args if isinstance(a, jax.Array) and isinstance(a.sharding, PmapSharding): sharded_dim = _which_dim_sharded(a.sharding) if sharded_dim is None: return dispatch.apply_primitive(prim, *args, **kwargs) return _copy_impl_pmap_sharding(sharded_dim, *args, **kwargs) return dispatch.apply_primitive(prim, *args, **kwargs) # The copy_p primitive exists for expressing making copies of runtime arrays. # For that reason we don't simplify it out of jaxprs (e.g. for jit invariance). # It's used in jnp.array(x, copy=True), which is the user-facing API. copy_p = core.Primitive('copy') copy_p.def_impl(partial(_copy_impl, copy_p)) copy_p.def_abstract_eval(lambda x: x) mlir.register_lowering(copy_p, lambda ctx, x: [x]) ad.deflinear(copy_p, lambda t: [copy_p.bind(t)]) pe.def_trivial_padding(copy_p) batching.defvectorized(copy_p)
[docs] def rng_bit_generator(key, shape, dtype=np.uint32, algorithm=RandomAlgorithm.RNG_DEFAULT): """Stateless PRNG bit generator. Experimental and its use is discouraged. Returns uniformly distributed random bits with the specified shape and dtype (what is required to be an integer type) using the platform specific default algorithm or the one specified. It provides direct access to the RngBitGenerator primitive exposed by XLA ( for low level API access. Most users should use `jax.random` instead for a stable and more user friendly API. """ shape = core.canonicalize_shape(shape) dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(dtype) if np.dtype(dtype) not in {np.dtype('uint8'), np.dtype('uint16'), np.dtype('uint32'), np.dtype('uint64')}: raise TypeError(f'rng_bit_generator: unsupported dtype {dtype}') return tuple( rng_bit_generator_p.bind( key, shape=shape, dtype=dtype, algorithm=algorithm))
def _iota_abstract_eval(*dyn_shape, dtype, shape, dimension): if not dyn_shape: # TODO(mattjj) Generalize shape_like checking to permit dynamic shapes _check_shapelike("iota", "shape", shape) if not any(dtypes.issubdtype(dtype, t) for t in _num): msg = 'iota does not accept dtype {}. Accepted dtypes are subtypes of {}.' typename = dtype_to_string(dtype) accepted_typenames = (t.__name__ for t in _num) raise TypeError(msg.format(typename, ', '.join(accepted_typenames))) if not 0 <= dimension < len(shape): raise ValueError("iota dimension must be between 0 and len(shape), got " f"{dimension=} for {shape=}") if (not dyn_shape and not any(isinstance(d, core.DArray) and type(core.get_aval(d).dtype) is core.bint for d in shape)): return ShapedArray(shape, dtype) # TODO(mattjj): unify DShapedArray with ShapedArray, and remove this code return core.DShapedArray(_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape), dtype, False) iota_p = Primitive('iota') iota_p.def_impl(partial(dispatch.apply_primitive, iota_p)) iota_p.def_abstract_eval(_iota_abstract_eval) def _iota_staging_rule(trace, *dyn_shape, dtype, shape, dimension): params = dict(dtype=dtype, shape=shape, dimension=dimension) if not dyn_shape: return trace.default_process_primitive(iota_p, (), params) aval = core.DShapedArray(_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape), dtype, False) return _dyn_shape_staging_rule(trace, iota_p, aval, *dyn_shape, **params) pe.custom_staging_rules[iota_p] = _iota_staging_rule def _iota_typecheck_rule(_, *dyn_shape, dtype, shape, dimension): if not dyn_shape: out_aval, effects = iota_p.abstract_eval( dtype=dtype, shape=shape, dimension=dimension) return [out_aval], effects else: out_shape = _merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape) out_shape = [x.val if type(x) is core.Literal else x for x in out_shape] # pytype: disable=attribute-error out_aval = core.DShapedArray(tuple(out_shape), dtype, False) return [out_aval], core.no_effects core.custom_typechecks[iota_p] = _iota_typecheck_rule def _iota_lower(ctx, *dyn_shape, dtype, shape, dimension): del dtype aval_out, = ctx.avals_out if dyn_shape: aval_out = aval_out.update(shape=_merge_dyn_shape(shape, dyn_shape)) return [mlir.iota(ctx, aval_out, dimension=dimension)] mlir.register_lowering(iota_p, _iota_lower) def _iota_batching_rule(in_vals, in_dims, *, dtype, shape, dimension): (segment_lengths,), (ax,) = in_vals, in_dims assert ax == 0 bound = segment_lengths.dtype.bound ragged_axis, = (i for i, dim in enumerate(shape) if dim is None) shape = (len(segment_lengths),) + _merge_dyn_shape(shape, (bound,)) iota = broadcasted_iota(dtype, shape, dimension+1) return iota, batching.RaggedAxis(ax, ((ragged_axis+1, segment_lengths),)) batching.primitive_batchers[iota_p] = _iota_batching_rule def _iota_pp_rule(eqn, context, settings): printed_params = {} if len(eqn.params['shape']) > 1: printed_params['dimension'] = eqn.params['dimension'] return core._pp_eqn(eqn.replace(params=printed_params), context, settings) # core.pp_eqn_rules[iota_p] = _iota_pp_rule def _iota_padding_rule(in_avals, out_avals, *dyn_shape, dtype, shape, dimension): out_aval, = out_avals new_shape = [] new_dyn_shape = [] for d in out_aval.shape: if type(d) is pe.BoundedAxisSize: new_shape.append(d.bound) elif type(d) is int: new_shape.append(d) else: assert isinstance(d, core.Tracer) new_shape.append(None) new_dyn_shape.append(d) return [iota_p.bind(*new_dyn_shape, shape=tuple(new_shape), dtype=dtype, dimension=dimension)] pe.padding_rules[iota_p] = _iota_padding_rule ### util _ndim = np.ndim def _dilate_shape(shape, dilation): """Utility function for computing the shape resulting from a dilation.""" if not np.all(np.greater(dilation, 0)): msg = "All dilations must be positive, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(dilation)) dilation = (1,) * (len(shape) - len(dilation)) + tuple(dilation) return tuple(map(core.dilate_dim, shape, dilation)) def _ceil_divide(x1, x2): return -np.floor_divide(np.negative(x1), x2) class PaddingType(enum.Enum): VALID = 1 SAME = 2 SAME_LOWER = 3 def padtype_to_pads(in_shape, window_shape, window_strides, padding): """Convert padding string to list of pairs of pad values.""" if isinstance(padding, str): mapping = { 'VALID': PaddingType.VALID, 'SAME': PaddingType.SAME, 'SAME_LOWER': PaddingType.SAME_LOWER, } try: padding = mapping[padding.upper()] except KeyError as err: msg = "Unrecognized padding type: expected 'VALID' or 'SAME', got {}." raise RuntimeError(msg.format(padding)) from err if padding == PaddingType.SAME or padding == PaddingType.SAME_LOWER: out_shape = _ceil_divide(in_shape, window_strides) pad_sizes = (core.max_dim(d, 0) for d in (out_shape - 1) * window_strides + window_shape - in_shape) if padding == PaddingType.SAME: return [ (pad_size // 2, pad_size - pad_size // 2) for pad_size in pad_sizes ] else: return [ (pad_size - pad_size // 2, pad_size // 2) for pad_size in pad_sizes ] elif padding == PaddingType.VALID: return [(0, 0)] * len(in_shape) else: msg = "Unknown padding type: {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(padding)) # Map of lax function to equivalent jax.numpy function for use in error string below. _JNP_FUNCTION_EQUIVALENTS = { 'abs': 'fabs', 'acos': 'arccos', 'acosh': 'arccosh', 'add': 'add', 'asin': 'arcsin', 'asinh': 'arcsinh', 'atan': 'arctan', 'atan2': 'arctan2', 'atanh': 'arctanh', 'bitwise_and': 'bitwise_and', 'bitwise_not': 'bitwise_not', 'bitwise_or': 'bitwise_or', 'bitwise_xor': 'bitwise_xor', 'cbrt': 'cbrt', 'ceil': 'ceil', 'concatenate': 'concatenate', 'cos': 'cos', 'cosh': 'cosh', 'div': 'divide', 'eq': 'equal', 'exp': 'exp', 'expm1': 'expm1', 'floor': 'floor', 'greater': 'greater', 'greater_equal': 'greater_equal', 'less': 'less', 'less_equal': 'less_equal', 'log': 'log', 'logical_and': 'logical_and', 'logical_not': 'logical_not', 'logical_or': 'logical_or', 'logical_xor': 'logical_xor', 'log1p': 'log1p', 'max': 'maximum', 'min': 'minimum', 'mul': 'multiply', 'ne': 'not_equal', 'neg': 'negative', 'nextafter': 'nextafter', 'pow': 'float_power', 'round': 'round', 'select': 'where', 'shift_left': 'left_shift', 'shift_right_logical': 'right_shift', 'shift_right_arithmetic': 'right_shift', 'sign': 'sign', 'sin': 'sin', 'sinh': 'sinh', 'sqrt': 'sqrt', 'sub': 'subtract', 'tan': 'tan', 'tanh': 'tanh' } def check_same_dtypes(name: str, *avals: core.UnshapedArray) -> None: """Check that dtypes agree, possibly ignoring float precision.""" # the `ignore_fp_precision` flag exists because the XLA shape inference logic # allows mixed floating point precision, but the HLO verifier often rejects it if any(dtypes.issubdtype(aval.dtype, dtypes.extended) for aval in avals): return # TODO(mattjj,frostig): do some checking, friend if len(avals) < 2: return dtype = dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(avals[0].dtype) if any(dtypes.canonicalize_dtype(aval.dtype) != dtype for aval in avals[1:]): msg = "lax.{} requires arguments to have the same dtypes, got {}." if name in _JNP_FUNCTION_EQUIVALENTS: equiv = _JNP_FUNCTION_EQUIVALENTS[name] msg += f" (Tip: jnp.{equiv} is a similar function that does automatic type promotion on inputs)." raise TypeError(msg.format(name, ", ".join(str(a.dtype) for a in avals))) def _check_shapelike(fun_name, arg_name, obj, non_zero_shape=False): """Check that `obj` is a shape-like value (e.g. tuple of nonnegative ints).""" if not isinstance(obj, (tuple, list, np.ndarray)): msg = "{} {} must be of type tuple/list/ndarray, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(fun_name, arg_name, type(obj))) # bool(obj) for an ndarray raises an error, so we check len if not len(obj): # pylint: disable=g-explicit-length-test return if (config.dynamic_shapes.value and isinstance(obj, (tuple, list)) and any(isinstance(d, (core.Tracer, core.DArray)) for d in obj)): return # TODO(mattjj): handle more checks in the dynamic shape case obj_arr = np.array(obj) if obj_arr.ndim != 1: msg = "{} {} must be 1-dimensional, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(obj_arr.ndim)) try: canonicalize_shape(obj_arr) except TypeError as err: msg = "{} {} must have every element be an integer type, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(fun_name, arg_name, tuple(map(type, obj)))) from err lower_bound, bound_error = ( (1, "strictly positive") if non_zero_shape else (0, "nonnegative")) if not all(d >= lower_bound for d in obj_arr): msg = "{} {} must have every element be {}, got {}." raise TypeError(msg.format(fun_name, arg_name, bound_error, obj)) def _const(example, val): dtype = _dtype(example) if dtypes.is_python_scalar(example): val = dtypes.scalar_type_of(example)(val) return val if dtype == _dtype(val) else np.array(val, dtype) return np.array(val, dtype) _zeros: Callable = partial(full_like, fill_value=0) _zero: Callable = partial(full_like, shape=(), fill_value=0) _ones: Callable = partial(full_like, fill_value=1) _one: Callable = partial(full_like, shape=(), fill_value=1) _twos: Callable = partial(full_like, fill_value=2) _two: Callable = partial(full_like, shape=(), fill_value=