# Source code for jax._src.errors

```
# Copyright 2021 Google LLC
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
from jax import core
class _JAXErrorMixin:
"""Mixin for JAX-specific errors"""
_error_page = 'https://jax.readthedocs.io/en/latest/errors.html'
_module_name = "jax.errors"
def __init__(self, message: str):
error_page = self._error_page
module_name = self._module_name
class_name = self.__class__.__name__
error_msg = f'{message} ({error_page}#{module_name}.{class_name})'
# https://github.com/python/mypy/issues/5887
super().__init__(error_msg) # type: ignore
class JAXTypeError(_JAXErrorMixin, TypeError):
pass
class JAXIndexError(_JAXErrorMixin, IndexError):
pass
[docs]class ConcretizationTypeError(JAXTypeError):
"""
This error occurs when a JAX Tracer object is used in a context where a concrete value
is required. In some situations, it can be easily fixed by marking problematic values
as static; in others, it may indicate that your program is doing operations that are
not directly supported by JAX's JIT compilation model.
Traced value where static value is expected
One common cause of this error is using a traced value where a static value is required.
For example:
>>> from jax import jit, partial
>>> import jax.numpy as jnp
>>> @jit
... def func(x, axis):
... return x.min(axis)
>>> func(jnp.arange(4), 0) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConcretizationTypeError: Abstract tracer value encountered where concrete value is expected:
axis argument to jnp.min().
This can often be fixed by marking the problematic value as static::
>>> @partial(jit, static_argnums=1)
... def func(x, axis):
... return x.min(axis)
>>> func(jnp.arange(4), 0)
DeviceArray(0, dtype=int32)
Traced value used in control flow
Another case where this often arises is when a traced value is used in Python control flow.
For example::
>>> @jit
... def func(x, y):
... return x if x.sum() < y.sum() else y
>>> func(jnp.ones(4), jnp.zeros(4)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConcretizationTypeError: Abstract tracer value encountered where concrete value is expected:
The problem arose with the `bool` function.
In this case, marking the problematic traced quantity as static is not an option, because it
is derived from traced inputs. But you can make progress by re-expressing this if statement
in terms of :func:`jax.numpy.where`::
>>> @jit
... def func(x, y):
... return jnp.where(x.sum() < y.sum(), x, y)
>>> func(jnp.ones(4), jnp.zeros(4))
DeviceArray([0., 0., 0., 0.], dtype=float32)
For more complicated control flow including loops, see :ref:`lax-control-flow`.
Shape depends on Traced Value
Such an error may also arise when a shape in your JIT-compiled computation depends
on the values within a traced quantity. For example::
>>> @jit
... def func(x):
... return jnp.where(x < 0)
>>> func(jnp.arange(4)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConcretizationTypeError: Abstract tracer value encountered where concrete value is expected:
The error arose in jnp.nonzero.
This is an example of an operation that is incompatible with JAX's JIT compilation model,
which requires array sizes to be known at compile-time. Here the size of the returned
array depends on the contents of `x`, and such code cannot be JIT compiled.
In many cases it is possible to work around this by modifying the logic used in the function;
for example here is code with a similar issue::
>>> @jit
... def func(x):
... indices = jnp.where(x > 1)
... return x[indices].sum()
>>> func(jnp.arange(4)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ConcretizationTypeError: Abstract tracer value encountered where concrete value is expected:
The error arose in jnp.nonzero.
And here is how you might express the same operation in a way that avoids creation of a
dynamically-sized index array::
>>> @jit
... def func(x):
... return jnp.where(x > 1, x, 0).sum()
>>> func(jnp.arange(4))
DeviceArray(5, dtype=int32)
To understand more subtleties having to do with tracers vs. regular values, and
concrete vs. abstract values, you may want to read :ref:`faq-different-kinds-of-jax-values`.
"""
def __init__(self, tracer: "core.Tracer", context: str = ""):
super().__init__(
"Abstract tracer value encountered where concrete value is expected: "
f"{tracer}\n{context}\n{tracer._origin_msg()}\n")
[docs]class NonConcreteBooleanIndexError(JAXIndexError):
"""
This error occurs when a program attempts to use non-concrete boolean indices
in a traced indexing operation. Under JIT compilation, JAX arrays must have static
shapes (i.e. shapes that are known at compile-time) and so boolean masks must be
used carefully. Some logic implemented via boolean masking is simply not possible
under JAX's JIT compilation model; in other cases, the logic can be re-expressed in
a JIT-compatible way, often using the three-argument version of :func:`~jax.numpy.where`.
Following are a few examples of when this error might arise.
Constructing arrays via boolean masking
This most commonly arises when attempting to create an array via a boolean mask
within a JIT context. For example::
>>> import jax
>>> import jax.numpy as jnp
>>> @jax.jit
... def positive_values(x):
... return x[x > 0]
>>> positive_values(jnp.arange(-5, 5)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NonConcreteBooleanIndexError: Array boolean indices must be concrete: ShapedArray(bool[10])
This function is attempting to return only the positive values in the input array; the size of
this returned array cannot be determined at compile-time unless `x` is marked as static, and so
operations like this cannot be performed under JIT compilation.
Reexpressible Boolean Logic
Although creating dynamically sized arrays is not supported directly, in many cases it is
possible to re-express the logic of the computation in terms of a JIT-compatible operation.
For example, here is another function that fails under JIT for the same reason::
>>> @jax.jit
... def sum_of_positive(x):
... return x[x > 0].sum()
>>> sum_of_positive(jnp.arange(-5, 5)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NonConcreteBooleanIndexError: Array boolean indices must be concrete: ShapedArray(bool[10])
In this case, however, the problematic array is only an intermediate value, and we can
instead express the same logic in terms of the JIT-compatible three-argument version of
:func:`jax.numpy.where`::
>>> @jax.jit
... def sum_of_positive(x):
... return jnp.where(x > 0, x, 0).sum()
>>> sum_of_positive(jnp.arange(-5, 5))
DeviceArray(10, dtype=int32)
This pattern of replacing boolean masking with three-argument :func:`~jax.numpy.where` is a
common solution to this sort of problem.
Boolean indices in :mod:`jax.ops`
The other situation where this error often arises is when using boolean indices within functions
in :mod:`jax.ops`, such as :func:`jax.ops.index_update`. Here is a simple example::
>>> @jax.jit
... def manual_clip(x):
... return jax.ops.index_update(x, x < 0, 0)
>>> manual_clip(jnp.arange(-2, 2)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NonConcreteBooleanIndexError: Array boolean indices must be concrete: ShapedArray(bool[4])
This function is attempting to set values smaller than zero to a scalar fill value. As above,
this can be addressed by re-expressing the logic in terms of :func:`~jax.numpy.where`::
>>> @jax.jit
... def manual_clip(x):
... return jnp.where(x < 0, 0, x)
>>> manual_clip(jnp.arange(-2, 2))
DeviceArray([0, 0, 0, 1], dtype=int32)
These operations also commonly are written in terms of the :ref:`syntactic-sugar-for-ops`;
for example, this is syntactic sugar for :func:`~jax.ops.index_mul`, and fails under JIT::
>>> @jax.jit
... def manual_abs(x):
... return x.at[x < 0].mul(-1)
>>> manual_abs(jnp.arange(-2, 2)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NonConcreteBooleanIndexError: Array boolean indices must be concrete: ShapedArray(bool[4])
As above, the solution is to re-express this in terms of :func:`~jax.numpy.where`::
>>> @jax.jit
... def manual_abs(x):
... return jnp.where(x < 0, x * -1, x)
>>> manual_abs(jnp.arange(-2, 2))
DeviceArray([2, 1, 0, 1], dtype=int32)
"""
def __init__(self, tracer: "core.Tracer"):
super().__init__(
f"Array boolean indices must be concrete; got {tracer}\n")
[docs]class TracerArrayConversionError(JAXTypeError):
"""
This error occurs when a program attempts to convert a JAX Tracer object into a
standard NumPy array. It typically occurs in one of a few situations.
Using `numpy` rather than `jax.numpy` functions
This error can occur when a JAX Tracer object is passed to a raw numpy function,
or a method on a numpy.ndarray object. For example::
>>> from jax import jit, partial
>>> import numpy as np
>>> import jax.numpy as jnp
>>> @jit
... def func(x):
... return np.sin(x)
>>> func(jnp.arange(4)) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TracerArrayConversionError: The numpy.ndarray conversion method __array__() was called on the JAX Tracer object
In this case, check that you are using `jax.numpy` methods rather than `numpy` methods::
>>> @jit
... def func(x):
... return jnp.sin(x)
>>> func(jnp.arange(4))
DeviceArray([0. , 0.84147096, 0.9092974 , 0.14112 ], dtype=float32)
Indexing a numpy array with a tracer
If this error arises on a line that involves array indexing, it may be that the array being
indexed `x` is a raw numpy.ndarray while the indices `idx` are traced. For example::
>>> x = np.arange(10)
>>> @jit
... def func(i):
... return x[i]
>>> func(0) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TracerArrayConversionError: The numpy.ndarray conversion method __array__() was called on the JAX Tracer object
Depending on the context, you may fix this by converting the numpy array into a JAX array::
>>> @jit
... def func(i):
... return jnp.asarray(x)[i]
>>> func(0)
DeviceArray(0, dtype=int32)
or by declaring the index as a static argument::
>>> @partial(jit, static_argnums=(0,))
... def func(i):
... return x[i]
>>> func(0)
DeviceArray(0, dtype=int32)
To understand more subtleties having to do with tracers vs. regular values, and concrete vs.
abstract values, you may want to read :ref:`faq-different-kinds-of-jax-values`.
"""
def __init__(self, tracer: "core.Tracer"):
# TODO(mattjj, jakevdp): use tracer._origin_msg() here
super().__init__(
"The numpy.ndarray conversion method __array__() was called on "
f"the JAX Tracer object {tracer}")
[docs]class TracerIntegerConversionError(JAXTypeError):
"""
This error can occur when a JAX Tracer object is used in a context where a Python integer
is expected. It typically occurs in a few situations.
Passing a tracer in place of an integer
This error can occur if you attempt to pass a tracer to a function that requires an integer
argument; for example::
>>> from jax import jit, partial
>>> import numpy as np
>>> @jit
... def func(x, axis):
... return np.split(x, 2, axis)
>>> func(np.arange(4), 0) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TracerIntegerConversionError: The __index__() method was called on the JAX Tracer object
When this happens, the solution is often to mark the problematic argument as static::
>>> @partial(jit, static_argnums=1)
... def func(x, axis):
... return np.split(x, 2, axis)
>>> func(np.arange(10), 0)
[DeviceArray([0, 1, 2, 3, 4], dtype=int32),
DeviceArray([5, 6, 7, 8, 9], dtype=int32)]
An alternative is to apply the transformation to a closure that encapsulates the arguments
to be protected, either manually as below or by using :func:`functools.partial`::
>>> jit(lambda arr: np.split(arr, 2, 0))(np.arange(4))
[DeviceArray([0, 1], dtype=int32), DeviceArray([2, 3], dtype=int32)]
**Note a new closure is created at every invocation, which defeats the compilation
caching mechanism, which is why static_argnums is preferred.**
Indexing a list with a Tracer
This error can occur if you attempt to index a Python list with a traced quantity.
For example::
>>> import jax.numpy as jnp
>>> from jax import jit, partial
>>> L = [1, 2, 3]
>>> @jit
... def func(i):
... return L[i]
>>> func(0) # doctest: +IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TracerIntegerConversionError: The __index__() method was called on the JAX Tracer object
Depending on the context, you can generally fix this either by converting the list
to a JAX array::
>>> @jit
... def func(i):
... return jnp.array(L)[i]
>>> func(0)
DeviceArray(1, dtype=int32)
or by declaring the index as a static argument::
>>> @partial(jit, static_argnums=0)
... def func(i):
... return L[i]
>>> func(0)
DeviceArray(1, dtype=int32)
To understand more subtleties having to do with tracers vs. regular values, and concrete vs.
abstract values, you may want to read :ref:`faq-different-kinds-of-jax-values`.
"""
def __init__(self, tracer: "core.Tracer"):
super().__init__(
f"The __index__() method was called on the JAX Tracer object {tracer}")
```